How Abu Bakr became caliph - al-Saqifa
Content:
The incident
Those who refused to pay allegiance to Abu Bakr
Ali and Fatima defend their position
Did Ali pledge allegiance to Abu Bakr six months later?
Position of Ahlul Bayt and Bani Hashim regarding the caliphate of Abu Bakr, Umar and Uthman
The prophet never declared the caliphate of Abu Bakr
The Sunni view on the caliphate of Abu Bakr
Was the appointment of Abu Bakr unanymous?
Why Abu Bakr does not qualify to be a caliph
Why did not Ali fight back?

I will repeat again: this is the devilish event that caused the division of the Ummah politically and religiously. The ignorance and lust for the Dunia of some companions is what led to this event, the shattering of the Ummah and blooshed. Abu Bakr's caliphate was neither a Sunnah of the prophet, nor a decree from Allah, but an usurpation from those who had this right.

The incident
al-Tabari has reported the event of al-Saqifa in his Tarikh and I will translate it into English the best I can:
Upon the prophet's demise, the Ansars met at the Saqifa of Bani Sa'ad to appoint Sa'ad ibn U'ubaydah as the successor of the prophet. Although Sa'ad was sick, he was brought out to the meeting. He could not talk loud enough for everyone could hear him, so he asked someone to repeat what he was saying...
حدثنا هشام بن محمد عن أبي مخنف قال حدثني عبدالله بن عبدالرحمن بن أبي عمرة الأنصاري أن النبي لما قبض اجتمعت الأنصار في سقيفة بني ساعدة فقالوا نولي هذا الأمر بعد محمد عليه السلام سعد بن عبادة وأخرجوا .سعدا إليهم وهو مريض فلما اجتمعوا قال لابنه أو بعض بني عمه إني لا أقدر لشكواي أن أسمع القوم كلهم كلامي ولكن تلق مني قولي فأسمعهموه فكان يتكلم ويحفظ الرجل قوله فيرفع صوته فيسمع أصحابه

As the discussion went on among the Ansars, some of them were worried about the reaction of the Muhajireens (who were absent from the meeting at the beginning). So they said:

"What if the Muhajireens say: 'We are the Muhajireens and the first companions of the prophet. We are from his tribe and his supporters. Why are you challenging us on the matter of the caliphate?' So one group of the Ansars responded: Then we shall tell them, if they challenge us, a chief from us and a chief from you; and we shall never accept otherwise."

Sa'ad ibn U'ubaydah said: "This is the first weakness."

ثم إنهم ترادوا الكلام بينهم فقالوا فإن أبت مهاجرة قريش فقالوا نحن المهاجرون وصحابة رسول الله الأولون ونحن عشيرته وأولياؤه فعلام تنازعوننا هذا الأمر بعده فقال طائفة منهم فإنا نقول إذا منا أمير ومنكم أمير ولن نرضى بدون هذا الأمر أبدا فقال سعد بن عبادة حين سمعها هذا أول الوهن

Then Umar was informed of the secret meeting of the Ansars:

Umar received news of the Saqifa meeting. He went to the house of the prophet and sent someone in to call for Abu Bakr, while Ali was preparing the burial of the prophet. Abu Bakr told the messenger that he was busy. Umar insisted that something important had occured and Abu Bakr's presence was necessary. When Abu Bakr stepped out, Umar told him: "Don't you know that the Ansars met at the Saqifa to appoint Sa'ad ibn Ubaydah as the successor of the prophet? And the best is that they suggested one caliph from them and one from us." So they both rushed to the Saqifa, and on the way, they met Abu Ubayda ibn al-Jarrah who joined them. Asem ibn Eddy and Awwam ibn Saae'eda met them on the way and told the three Muhajireens: "Go back as there is nothing for you here." They refused and carried on their way until they reached the Saqifa.
وأتى عمر الخبر فأقبل إلى منزل النبي فأرسل إلى أبي بكر وأبو بكر في الدار وعلي بن أبي طالب عليه السلام دائب في جهاز رسول الله فأرسل إلى أبي بكر أن اخرج إلي فأرسل إليه إني مشتغل فأرسل إليه أنه قد حدث أمر لا بد لك من حضوره فخرج إليه فقال أما علمت أن الأنصار قد اجتمعت في سقيفة بني ساعدة يريدون أن يولوا هذا الأمر سعد بن عبادة وأحسنهم مقالة من يقول منا أمير ومن قريش أمير فمضيا مسرعين نحوهم فلقيا أبا عبيدة بن الجراح فتماشوا إليهم ثلاثتهم فلقيهم عاصم بن عدي وعويم بن ساعدة فقالا لهم ارجعوا فإنه لا يكون ما تريدون فقالوا لا نفعل فجاءوا وهم مجتمعون

When they arrived at the meeting, Umar wanted to speak but Abu Bakr slowed him down:

"Umar said: I wanted to make a speech, which I had composed in my mind. When I wanted to speak he told me to slow down. So I did not like to disobey him. So Abu Bakr gave his speech. Everything in his speech was like mine and more...Abu Bakr said: "...Allah made the Muhajireens the first on earth to worship Allah and were the patrons and the clan of the Prophet who tolerated and suffered with him and adversities and injuries inflicted upon them by their own folk who disbelieved them and all other people opposed them and alienated them...They are the first on earth to have believed in Allah and His messenger; they are his supporters and from his tribe and have more rights over this matter than anyone else; and no one shall challenge them on this matter but the wicked. You, the people of Ansars! No one denies your superiority in religion nor your glorious record in Islam. God is pleased to have you as the helpers to His religion and to His apostle who migrated towards you and among you are his distinguished wives and his companions. We do not have any among us of the standard and at the status of the first Muhajireens. So we are the chiefs and you are the ministers..."
فقال عمر بن الخطاب أتيناهم وقد كنت زورت كلاما أردت أن أقوم به فيهم فلما أن دفعت إليهم ذهبت لأبتدئ المنطق فقال لي أبو بكر رويدا حتى أتكلم ثم انطق بعد بما أحببت فنطق فقال عمر فما شيء كنت أردت أن أقوله إلا وقد أتى به أو زاد عليه فقال عبدالله بن عبدالرحمن فبدأ أبو بكر فحمد الله ..... وهم أولياؤه وعشيرته وأحق الناس بهذا الأمر من بعده ولا ينازعهم ذلك إلا ظالم وأنتم يا معشر الأنصار من لا ينكر فضلهم في الدين ولا سابقتهم العظيمة في الإسلام رضيكم الله أنصارا لدينه ورسوله وجعل إليكم هجرته وفيكم جلة أزواجه وأصحابه فليس بعد المهاجرين الأولين عندنا أحد بمنزلتكم فنحن الأمراء وأنتم الوزراء لا تفتانون بمشورة ولا نقضي دونكم الأمور

After the speech of Abu Bakr, Hubab ibn Mundhir, who is an Ansari, proposed a compromise consisting of appointing two caliphs:

Oh Ansars! Take control of the matter. People are lurking either around you or beneath your shadows. let not any dwell upon your differences nor determine detering your decision. You are the men of honor and wealth...Do not differ for your opinion will be spoiled and errand eradicated. If they did not agree; then a chief from us and a chief from them."
قال فقام الحباب بن المنذر بن الجموح فقال يا معشر الأنصار املكوا عليكم أمركم فإن الناس في فيئكم وفي ظلكم ولن يجترئ مجترئ على خلافكم ولن يصدر الناس إلا عن رأيكم أنتم أهل العز والثروة وأولو العدد والمنعة والتجربة ذوو البأس والنجدة وإنما ينظر الناس إلى ما تصنعون ولا تختلفوا فيفسد عليكم رأيكم وينتقض عليكم أمركم فإن أبى هؤلاء إلا ما سمعتم فمنا أمير ومنهم أمير

Umar immediately rejected the idea. The following is from al-Tabari:

"How preposterous! Two swords cannot be accommodated in one sheath. By God the Arabs will never accept your rule since their Prophet is not from you, but they will not reject the rule of one from whom is their Prophet. If anyone refuses our authority, we will [produce] a clear rebuttal and an evident proof. Who would dispute us with regard to Muhammad's authority and rule except the falsely guided one, or the erring one, or the one damned when we are his close associates and kinsfolk".
فقال عمر هيهات لا يجتمع اثنان في قرن والله لا ترضى العرب أن يؤمروكم ونبيها من غيركم ولكن العرب لا تمنع أن تولي أمرها من كانت النبوة فيهم وولي أمورهم منهم ولنا بذلك على من أبى من العرب الحجة الظاهرة والسلطان المبين من ذا ينازعنا سلطان محمد وإمارته ونحن أولياؤه وعشيرته إلا مدل بباطل أو متجانف لإثم ومتورط في هلكة

Once again, Hubbab ibn Mundhir objected, and this time to Umar's points:

Oh Ansars! Take control of the matter. Do not listen to his words (Umar) nor those of his friends. They will snatch away your share of this matter. If they refrained from giving you what are demanding, then expel them from this land and take charge of this matter. By God, you deserve this right more then they do. It was because of your swords they embraced this religion who had no relition. We are that trunk at which it is eased and we are its magnificient branch. I am the lion in its denge. By God, if you like we could repeat the beginning and return to the start.
فقام الحباب بن المنذر فقال يامعشر الأنصار املكوا على أيديكم ولا تسمعوا مقالة هذا وأصحابه فيذهبوا بنصيبكم من هذا الأمر فإن أبوا عليكم ما سألتموه فاجلوهم عن هذه البلاد وتولوا عليهم هذه الأمور فأنتم والله أحق بهذا الأمر منهم فإنه بأسيافكم دان لهذا الدين من دان ممن لم يكن يدين أنا جذيلها المحكك وعذيقها المرجب أما والله لئن شئتم لنعيدنها جذعة

The turmoil continued between the Ansars and the three Muhajireens, each one claiming more rights over the other on the matter:

Umar reponded to Hubab's speech: "May Allah kill you!" al-Hubab retorted: "You alone is to be killed!" Then Abu Ubayda ibn al-Jarrah spoke: "Oh Ansars! You are the first you helpted and supported and don't be the first to oppose and change." At that point, Basheer ibn Sa'ad al-Khazraji said: "Oh Ansars! By God, we are superiors in the holy war against the pagans and have preceded all in this religion. But we did not aim except the pleasure of God and the obedience to our prophet besides the drudgery to ourselves. Therefore, it is not befitting for us to impose ourselves upon the people for that score nor seek the width of the world since God has already favored us. Mohammad is from Quraish and his people are more rightful to it (the caliphate). Is it not so? I swear on God that He may not see me competing with them in this matter. No, never. Fear God and do not compete with them."

Abu Bakr then said: "Here is Umar and Abu Ubaydah. Pay allegiance to whoever you wish." Umar and Abu Ubayda objected and said: "No never, by God, we don't take this responsibility as long as you exist. You are the best of the Muhajireen and the second of the two in the cave and the leader of the prayers after the prophet and who dares to challenge you on this matter? Extend your hand so we may pay allegiance to you." When Abu Bakr extended his hand, Bashir ibn Sa'ad proceeded faster than Umar and Abu Ubayda to pay Allegiance to Abu Bakr. When al-Hubab saw that, he shouted at Bashir and said: "O Basheer ibn Sa'ad! You have prated a balderdash! What you did was not the need. You raised the bid of leadership upon your cousin." Basheer responded: "No by God! I do not wish to compete against the people whom God has given the right."...Then the Aws scurried to pay allegiance to Abi Bakr as well...and the Khazraj lost their decision.

فقال عمر إذا يقتلك الله قال بل إياك يقتل فقال أبو عبيدة يا معشر الأنصار إنكم أول من نصر وآزر فلا تكونوا أول من بدل وغير فقام بشير بن سعد أبو النعمان بن بشير فقال يا معشر الأنصار إنا والله لئن كنا أولي فضيلة في جهاد المشركين وسابقة في هذا الدين ما أردنا به إلا رضا ربنا وطاعة نبينا والكدح لأنفسنا فما ينبغي لنا أن نستطيل على الناس بذلك ولا نبتغي به من الدنيا عرضا فإن الله ولي المنة علينا بذلك ألا إن محمدا من قريش وقومه أحق به وأولى وايم الله لا يراني الله أنازعهم هذا الأمر أبدا فاتقوا الله ولا تخالفوهم ولا تنازعوهم فقال أبو بكر هذا عمر وهذا ابو عبيدة فأيهما شئتم فبايعوا فقالا لا والله لا نتولى هذا الأمر عليك فإنك أفضل المهاجرين وثاني اثنين إذ هما في الغار وخليفة رسول الله على الصلاة والصلاة أفضل دين المسلمين فمن ذا ينبغي له أن يتقدمك أويتولى هذا الأمر عليك ابسط يدك نبايعك فلما ذهبا ليبايعاه سبقهما إليه بشير بن سعد فبايعه فناداه الحباب بن المنذر يا بشير بن سعد عقتك عقاق ما أحوجك إلى ما صنعت أنفست على ابن عمك الإمارة فقال لا والله ولكني كرهت أن أنازع قوما حقا جعله الله لهم ولما رأت الأوس ما صنع بشير بن سعد وما تدعو إليه قريش وما تطلب الخزرج من تأمير سعد بن عبادة قال بعضهم لبعض وفيهم أسيد بن حضير وكان أحد النقباء والله لئن وليتها الخزرج عليكم مرة لا زالت لهم عليكم بذلك الفضيلة ولا جعلوا لكم معهم فيها نصيبا أبدا فقوموا فبايعوا أبا بكر فقاموا إليه فبايعوه فانكسر على سعد بن عبادة وعلى الخزرج ما كانوا أجمعوا له من أمرهم

As the people were paying allegiance to Abu Bakr, they were about to crush Sa'ad ibn Ubayda. Someone shouted: "You killed Sa'ad." Umar angrily said: "Kill Sa'ad. May God kill him." and then a quarel between Umar and Saad started...
فأقبل الناس من كل جانب يبايعون أبا بكر وكادوا يطؤون سعد بن عبادة فقال ناس من أصحاب سعد اتقوا سعدا لا تطؤوه فقال عمر اقتلوه قتله الله ثم قام على رأسه فقال لقد هممت أن أطأك حتى تندر عضدك فأخذ سعد بلحية عمر فقال والله لو حصصت منه شعرة ما رجعت وفي فيك واضحة فقال أبو بكر مهلا يا عمر الرفق ها هنا أبلغ فأعرض عنه عمر وقال سعد أما والله لو أن بي قوة ما أقوى على النهوض لسمعت مني في أقطارها وسككها زئيرا يجحرك وأصحابك أما والله إذا لألحقنك بقوم كنت فيهم تابعا غير متبوع احملوني من هذا المكان فحملوه فأدخلوه في داره وترك أياما ثم بعث إليه أن أقبل فبايع فقد بايع الناس وبايع قومك فقال أما والله حتى أرميكم بما في كنانتي من نبلي وأخضب سنان رمحي وأضربكم بسيفي ما ملكته يدي وأقاتلكم بأهل بيتي ومن أطاعني من قومي فلا أفعل وايم الله لو أن الجن اجتمعت لكم مع الإنس ما بايعتكم حتى أعرض على ربي وأعلم ما حسابي فلما أتى أبو بكر بذلك قال له عمر لا تدعه حتى يبايع فقال له بشير بن سعد إنه قد لج وأبى وليس بمبايعكم حتى يقتل وليس بمقتول حتى يقتل معه ولده وأهل بيته وطائفة من عشيرته فاتركوه فليس تركه بضاركم إنما هو رجل واحد فتركوه وقبلوا مشورة بشير بن سعد واستنصحوه لما بدا لهم منه فكان سعد لا يصلي بصلاتهم ولا يجمع معهم ويحج ولا يفيض معهم بإفاضتهم فلم يزل كذلك حتى هلك أبو بكر رحمه الله

The following is from Sahih al-Bukhari, also recorded by ibn Jarir al-Tabari in his Tareekh, ibn Hisham in his Sirat and al-Muttaqi al-Hindi in Kanz al-U'umal :

Narrated Ibn 'Abbas: I used to teach (the Qur'an to) some people of the Muhajirin (emigrants), among whom there was 'Abdur Rahman bin 'Auf. While I was in his house at Mina, and he was with 'Umar bin Al-Khattab during 'Umar's last Hajj, Abdur-Rahman came to me and said, "Would that you had seen the man who came today to the Chief of the Believers ('Umar), saying, 'O Chief of the Believers! What do you think about so-and-so who says, 'If 'Umar should die, I will give the pledge of allegiance to such-and-such person, as by Allah, the pledge of allegiance to Abu Bakr was nothing but a prompt sudden action which got established afterwards.' 'Umar became angry and then said, 'Allah willing, I will stand before the people tonight and warn them against those people who want to deprive the others of their rights (the question of rulership)."

'Abdur-Rahman said, "I said, 'O Chief of the believers! Do not do that, for the season of Hajj gathers the riff-raff and the rubble, and it will be they who will gather around you when you stand to address the people. And I am afraid that you will get up and say something, and some people will spread your statement and may not say what you have actually said and may not understand its meaning, and may interpret it incorrectly, so you should wait till you reach Medina, as it is the place of emigration and the place of Prophet's Traditions, and there you can come in touch with the learned and noble people, and tell them your ideas with confidence; and the learned people will understand your statement and put it in its proper place.' On that, 'Umar said, 'By Allah! Allah willing, I will do this in the first speech I will deliver before the people in Medina."

Ibn Abbas added: We reached Medina by the end of the month of Dhul-Hijja, and when it was Friday, we went quickly (to the mosque) as soon as the sun had declined, and I saw Sa'id bin Zaid bin 'Amr bin Nufail sitting at the corner of the pulpit, and I too sat close to him so that my knee was touching his knee, and after a short while 'Umar bin Al-Khattab came out, and when I saw him coming towards us, I said to Said bin Zaid bin 'Amr bin Nufail "Today 'Umar will say such a thing as he has never said since he was chosen as Caliph." Said denied my statement with astonishment and said, "What thing do you expect 'Umar to say the like of which he has never said before?"

In the meantime, 'Umar sat on the pulpit and when the callmakers for the prayer had finished their call, 'Umar stood up, and having glorified and praised Allah as He deserved, he said, "Now then, I am going to tell you something which (Allah) has written for me to say. I do not know; perhaps it portends my death, so whoever understands and remembers it, must narrate it to the others wherever his mount takes him, but if somebody is afraid that he does not understand it, then it is unlawful for him to tell lies about me. Allah sent Muhammad with the Truth and revealed the Holy Book to him, and among what Allah revealed, was the Verse of the Rajam (the stoning of married person (male & female) who commits illegal sexual intercourse, and we did recite this Verse and understood and memorized it. Allah's Apostle did carry out the punishment of stoning and so did we after him.

I am afraid that after a long time has passed, somebody will say, 'By Allah, we do not find the Verse of the Rajam in Allah's Book,' and thus they will go astray by leaving an obligation which Allah has revealed. And the punishment of the Rajam is to be inflicted to any married person (male & female), who commits illegal sexual intercourse, if the required evidence is available or there is conception or confession. And then we used to recite among the Verses in Allah's Book: 'O people! Do not claim to be the offspring of other than your fathers, as it is disbelief (unthankfulness) on your part that you claim to be the offspring of other than your real father.' Then Allah's Apostle said, 'Do not praise me excessively as Jesus, son of Marry was praised, but call me Allah's Slave and His Apostles.' (O people!) I have been informed that a speaker amongst you says, 'By Allah, if 'Umar should die, I will give the pledge of allegiance to such-and-such person.' One should not deceive oneself by saying that the pledge of allegiance given to Abu Bakr was given suddenly and it was successful. No doubt, it was like that, but Allah saved (the people) from its evil, and there is none among you who has the qualities of Abu Bakr. Remember that whoever gives the pledge of allegiance to anybody among you without consulting the other Muslims, neither that person, nor the person to whom the pledge of allegiance was given, are to be supported, lest they both should be killed.

And no doubt after the death of the Prophet we were informed that the Ansar disagreed with us and gathered in the shed of Bani Sa'da. 'Ali and Zubair and whoever was with them, opposed us, while the emigrants gathered with Abu Bakr. I said to Abu Bakr, 'Let's go to these Ansari brothers of ours.' So we set out seeking them, and when we approached them, two pious men of theirs met us and informed us of the final decision of the Ansar, and said, 'O group of Muhajirin (emigrants) ! Where are you going?' We replied, 'We are going to these Ansari brothers of ours.' They said to us, 'You shouldn't go near them. Carry out whatever we have already decided.' I said, 'By Allah, we will go to them.' And so we proceeded until we reached them at the shed of Bani Sa'da. Behold! There was a man sitting amongst them and wrapped in something. I asked, 'Who is that man?' They said, 'He is Sa'd bin 'Ubada.' I asked, 'What is wrong with him?' They said, 'He is sick.' After we sat for a while, the Ansar's speaker said, 'None has the right to be worshipped but Allah,' and praising Allah as He deserved, he added, 'To proceed, we are Allah's Ansar (helpers) and the majority of the Muslim army, while you, the emigrants, are a small group and some people among you came with the intention of preventing us from practicing this matter (of caliphate) and depriving us of it.'

When the speaker had finished, I intended to speak as I had prepared a speech which I liked and which I wanted to deliver in the presence of Abu Bakr, and I used to avoid provoking him. So, when I wanted to speak, Abu Bakr said, 'Wait a while.' I disliked to make him angry. So Abu Bakr himself gave a speech, and he was wiser and more patient than I. By Allah, he never missed a sentence that I liked in my own prepared speech, but he said the like of it or better than it spontaneously. After a pause he said, 'O Ansar! You deserve all (the qualities that you have attributed to yourselves, but this question (of Caliphate) is only for the Quraish as they are the best of the Arabs as regards descent and home, and I am pleased to suggest that you choose either of these two men, so take the oath of allegiance to either of them as you wish. And then Abu Bakr held my hand and Abu Ubada bin Abdullah's hand who was sitting amongst us. I hated nothing of what he had said except that proposal, for by Allah, I would rather have my neck chopped off as expiator for a sin than become the ruler of a nation, one of whose members is Abu Bakr, unless at the time of my death my own-self suggests something I don't feel at present.'

And then one of the Ansar said, 'I am the pillar on which the camel with a skin disease (eczema) rubs itself to satisfy the itching (i.e., I am a noble), and I am as a high class palm tree! O Quraish. There should be one ruler from us and one from you.'

Then there was a hue and cry among the gathering and their voices rose so that I was afraid there might be great disagreement, so I said, 'O Abu Bakr! Hold your hand out.' He held his hand out and I pledged allegiance to him, and then all the emigrants gave the pledge of allegiance and so did the Ansar afterwards. And so we became victorious over Sa'd bin Ubada (whom Al-Ansar wanted to make a ruler). One of the Ansar said, 'You have killed Sa'd bin Ubada.' I replied, 'Allah has killed Sa'd bin Ubada.' Umar added, "By Allah, apart from the great tragedy that had happened to us (i.e. the death of the Prophet), there was no greater problem than the allegiance pledged to Abu Bakr because we were afraid that if we left the people, they might give the pledge of allegiance after us to one of their men, in which case we would have given them our consent for something against our real wish, or would have opposed them and caused great trouble. So if any person gives the pledge of allegiance to somebody (to become a Caliph) without consulting the other Muslims, then the one he has selected should not be granted allegiance, lest both of them should be killed."

‏حدثنا ‏ ‏عبد العزيز بن عبد الله ‏ ‏حدثني ‏ ‏إبراهيم بن سعد ‏ ‏عن ‏ ‏صالح ‏ ‏عن ‏ ‏ابن شهاب ‏ ‏عن ‏ ‏عبيد الله بن عبد الله بن عتبة بن مسعود ‏ ‏عن ‏ ‏ابن :
‏قال ‏‏كنت أقرئ رجالا من ‏ ‏المهاجرين ‏ ‏منهم ‏ ‏عبد الرحمن بن عوف ‏ ‏فبينما أنا في منزله ‏ ‏بمنى ‏ ‏وهو عند ‏ ‏عمر بن الخطاب ‏ ‏في آخر حجة حجها إذ رجع إلي ‏ ‏عبد الرحمن ‏ ‏فقال لو رأيت رجلا أتى أمير المؤمنين اليوم فقال يا أمير المؤمنين هل لك في فلان يقول لو قد مات ‏ ‏عمر ‏ ‏لقد بايعت ‏ ‏فلانا ‏ ‏فوالله ما كانت بيعة ‏ ‏أبي بكر ‏ ‏إلا فلتة فتمت فغضب ‏ ‏عمر ‏ ‏ثم قال إني إن شاء الله لقائم العشية في الناس فمحذرهم هؤلاء الذين يريدون أن يغصبوهم أمورهم

قال ‏ ‏عبد الرحمن ‏ ‏فقلت يا أمير المؤمنين لا تفعل فإن الموسم يجمع ‏ ‏رعاع ‏ ‏الناس ‏ ‏وغوغاءهم ‏ ‏فإنهم هم الذين يغلبون على قربك حين تقوم في الناس وأنا أخشى أن تقوم فتقول مقالة يطيرها عنك كل ‏ ‏مطير ‏ ‏وأن لا يعوها وأن لا يضعوها على مواضعها فأمهل حتى تقدم ‏ ‏المدينة ‏ ‏فإنها دار الهجرة والسنة فتخلص بأهل الفقه وأشراف الناس فتقول ما قلت متمكنا فيعي أهل العلم مقالتك ويضعونها على مواضعها فقال ‏ ‏عمر ‏ ‏أما والله إن شاء الله لأقومن بذلك أول مقام أقومه ‏ ‏بالمدينة

‏قال ‏ ‏ابن عباس ‏ ‏فقدمنا ‏ ‏المدينة ‏ ‏في عقب ذي الحجة فلما كان يوم الجمعة عجلت الرواح حين ‏ ‏زاغت ‏ ‏الشمس حتى أجد ‏ ‏سعيد بن زيد بن عمرو بن نفيل ‏ ‏جالسا إلى ركن المنبر فجلست حوله تمس ركبتي ركبته فلم أنشب أن خرج ‏ ‏عمر بن الخطاب ‏ ‏فلما رأيته مقبلا قلت ‏ ‏لسعيد بن زيد بن عمرو بن نفيل ‏ ‏ليقولن العشية مقالة لم يقلها منذ استخلف فأنكر علي وقال ما عسيت أن يقول ما لم يقل قبله

فجلس ‏ ‏عمر ‏ ‏على المنبر فلما سكت المؤذنون قام فأثنى على الله بما هو أهله ثم قال أما بعد فإني قائل لكم مقالة قد قدر لي أن أقولها لا أدري لعلها بين يدي أجلي فمن عقلها ووعاها فليحدث بها حيث انتهت به ‏ ‏راحلته ‏ ‏ومن خشي أن لا يعقلها فلا أحل لأحد أن يكذب علي إن الله بعث ‏ ‏محمدا ‏ ‏صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ ‏بالحق وأنزل عليه الكتاب فكان مما أنزل الله آية الرجم فقرأناها وعقلناها ووعيناها رجم رسول الله ‏ ‏صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ ‏ورجمنا بعده فأخشى إن طال بالناس زمان أن يقول قائل والله ما نجد آية الرجم في كتاب الله فيضلوا بترك فريضة أنزلها الله والرجم في كتاب الله حق على من زنى إذا أحصن من الرجال والنساء إذا قامت البينة أو كان الحبل أو ‏ ‏الاعتراف ثم إنا كنا نقرأ فيما نقرأ من كتاب الله أن لا ترغبوا عن آبائكم فإنه كفر بكم أن ترغبوا عن آبائكم أو إن كفرا بكم أن ترغبوا عن آبائكم ألا ثم إن رسول الله ‏ ‏صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ ‏قال ‏ ‏لا ‏ ‏تطروني ‏ ‏كما ‏ ‏أطري ‏ ‏عيسى ابن مريم ‏ ‏وقولوا عبد الله ورسوله ثم إنه بلغني أن قائلا منكم يقول والله لو قد مات ‏ ‏عمر ‏ ‏بايعت ‏ ‏فلانا ‏ ‏فلا ‏ ‏يغترن ‏ ‏امرؤ أن يقول إنما كانت بيعة ‏ ‏أبي بكر ‏ ‏فلتة وتمت ألا وإنها قد كانت كذلك ولكن الله وقى شرها وليس منكم من تقطع الأعناق إليه مثل ‏ ‏أبي بكر ‏ ‏من بايع رجلا عن غير مشورة من المسلمين فلا يبايع هو ولا الذي بايعه ‏ ‏تغرة ‏‏أن يقتلا

وإنه قد كان من خبرنا حين توفى الله نبيه ‏ ‏صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ ‏أن ‏ ‏الأنصار ‏ ‏خالفونا واجتمعوا بأسرهم في ‏ ‏سقيفة ‏ ‏بني ساعدة ‏ ‏وخالف عنا ‏ ‏علي ‏ ‏والزبير ‏ ‏ومن معهما واجتمع ‏ ‏المهاجرون ‏ ‏إلى ‏ ‏أبي بكر ‏فقلت ‏ ‏لأبي بكر ‏ ‏يا ‏ ‏أبا بكر ‏ ‏انطلق بنا إلى إخواننا هؤلاء من ‏ ‏الأنصار ‏ ‏فانطلقنا نريدهم فلما دنونا منهم لقينا منهم ‏ ‏رجلان ‏ ‏صالحان فذكرا ما ‏ ‏تمالأ ‏ ‏عليه القوم فقالا أين تريدون يا معشر ‏ ‏المهاجرين ‏ ‏فقلنا نريد إخواننا هؤلاء من ‏ ‏الأنصار ‏ ‏فقالا لا عليكم أن لا تقربوهم اقضوا أمركم فقلت والله لنأتينهم فانطلقنا حتى أتيناهم في ‏ ‏سقيفة ‏ ‏بني ساعدة ‏ ‏فإذا رجل ‏ ‏مزمل ‏ ‏بين ‏ ‏ظهرانيهم ‏ ‏فقلت من هذا فقالوا هذا ‏ ‏سعد بن عبادة ‏ ‏فقلت ما له قالوا ‏ ‏يوعك ‏ ‏فلما جلسنا قليلا تشهد خطيبهم فأثنى على الله بما هو أهله ثم قال أما بعد فنحن أنصار الله وكتيبة الإسلام وأنتم معشر ‏ ‏المهاجرين ‏ ‏رهط وقد دفت ‏ ‏دافة ‏ ‏من قومكم فإذا هم يريدون أن ‏ ‏يختزلونا ‏ ‏من أصلنا وأن يحضنونا من الأمر

فلما سكت أردت أن أتكلم وكنت قد زورت مقالة أعجبتني أريد أن أقدمها بين يدي ‏ ‏أبي بكر ‏ ‏وكنت أداري منه بعض الحد فلما أردت أن أتكلم قال ‏ ‏أبو بكر ‏ ‏على ‏ ‏رسلك ‏ ‏فكرهت أن أغضبه فتكلم ‏ ‏أبو بكر ‏ ‏فكان هو أحلم مني وأوقر والله ما ترك من كلمة أعجبتني في تزويري إلا قال في بديهته مثلها أو أفضل منها حتى سكت فقال ما ذكرتم فيكم من خير فأنتم له أهل ولن يعرف هذا الأمر إلا لهذا الحي من ‏ ‏قريش ‏ ‏هم أوسط ‏ ‏العرب ‏ ‏نسبا ودارا وقد رضيت لكم أحد هذين الرجلين فبايعوا أيهما شئتم فأخذ بيدي وبيد ‏ ‏أبي عبيدة بن الجراح ‏ ‏وهو جالس بيننا فلم أكره مما قال غيرها كان والله أن أقدم فتضرب عنقي لا يقربني ذلك من إثم أحب إلي من أن أتأمر على قوم فيهم ‏ ‏أبو بكر ‏ ‏اللهم إلا أن تسول إلي نفسي عند الموت شيئا لا أجده الآن

فقال قائل من ‏ ‏الأنصار ‏ ‏أنا ‏ ‏جذيلها ‏ ‏المحكك ‏ ‏وعذيقها ‏ ‏المرجب ‏ ‏منا أمير ومنكم أمير يا معشر ‏ ‏قريش ‏

‏فكثر ‏ ‏اللغط ‏ ‏وارتفعت الأصوات حتى فرقت من ‏ ‏الاختلاف فقلت ابسط يدك يا ‏ ‏أبا بكر ‏ ‏فبسط يده فبايعته وبايعه ‏ ‏المهاجرون ‏ ‏ثم بايعته ‏ ‏الأنصار ‏ ‏ونزونا ‏ ‏على ‏ ‏سعد بن عبادة ‏ ‏فقال قائل منهم قتلتم ‏ ‏سعد بن عبادة ‏ ‏فقلت قتل الله ‏ ‏سعد بن عبادة ‏ ‏قال ‏ ‏عمر ‏ ‏وإنا والله ما وجدنا فيما حضرنا من أمر أقوى من مبايعة ‏ ‏أبي بكر ‏ ‏خشينا إن فارقنا القوم ولم تكن بيعة أن يبايعوا رجلا منهم بعدنا فإما بايعناهم على ما لا نرضى وإما نخالفهم فيكون فساد فمن بايع رجلا على غير مشورة من المسلمين فلا يتابع هو ولا الذي بايعه ‏ ‏تغرة ‏ ‏أن يقتلا

Reference:
     Sahih Bukhari, Volume 8, Book 82, Number 817, Book: al-hudood (al-muhharibeen); Page 1442, Number 6830 (Arabic version)


Muhheb al-Deen al-Tabari recorded the following in his book al-Riyadd al-Naddirat:
Abu Bakr said on the day of al-Saqifa: "Allah sent down His prophet with guidance and the religion of Truth, so the prophet invited people to Islam...and we, the Muhajireen were the first people to join Islam, we are from his clan and his relatives, and we are the people of the Khilafat and the best of the Arabs with regards to descent and the Arabs gave birth to us and there is not one tribe that does not have someone born from Quraish and this caliphate cannot be but for someone from Quraish...So we are the Emirs and you are ministers, and you, the Ansars are our brothers in the Book of Allah and our partners in religion and surrender to your brothers from the Muhajireen and the rightful people not to envy them for what Allah has blessed them with and I suggest one of the two people..."
وذكر موسى بن عقبة عن ابن شهاب : إن أبا بكر يوم السقيفة تشهد وأنصت القوم فقال : بعث الله نبيّه بالهدى ودين الحق فدعا رسول الله صلّى الله عليه وسلّم إلى الإسلام ، فأخذ الله بقلوبنا ونواصينا إلى ما دعا إليه ، فكنا معشر المهاجرين أول الناس إسلاما ونحن عشيرته وأقاربه وذوو رحمه ، ونحن أهل الخلافة وأوسط الناس أنسابا في العرب ، ولدتنا العرب كلها فليس منهم قبيلة إلا لقريش فيها ولادة ، ولن تصلح إلاّ لرجل من قريش ، هم أصبح الناس وجوها وأسلطهم ألسنة وأفضلهم قولا. فالناس لقريش تبع ، فنحن الأمراء وأنتم الوزراء ، وأنتم يا معشر الأنصار إخواننا في كتاب الله وشركاؤنا في دين الله تعالى والتسليم لفضيلة إخوانكم من المهاجرين وأحق الناس ان لا تحسدوهم على خير آتاهم الله إياه ، وأنا أدعوكم إلى أحد رجلين ـ ثم ذكر معنى ما قبله في حديث ابن عباس .


al-Tabari in his Tareekh in a similar meaning:
فخص الله المهاجرين الأولين من قومه : بتصديقه والايمان به والمواساة له والصبر معه على شدة أذى قومهم لهم ولدينهم ، وكل الناس لهم مخالف زار عليهم ، فلم يستوحشوا لقلة عددهم وشنف الناس لهم واجماع قومهم عليهم ، فهم أول من عبد الله في الأرض وآمن به وبالرسول ، وهم أولياؤه وعشيرته وأحق الناس بهذا الأمر من بعده ولا ينازعهم في ذلك إلاّ ظالم ...


Here are the keypoints to take from this evil event:
  1. What do you think about so-and-so who says, 'If 'Umar should die, I will give the pledge of allegiance to such-and-such person, as by Allah, the pledge of allegiance to Abu Bakr was nothing but a prompt sudden action which got established afterwards.
    لو رأيت رجلا أتى أمير المؤمنين اليوم فقال يا أمير المؤمنين هل لك في فلان يقول لو قد مات ‏ ‏عمر ‏ ‏لقد بايعت ‏ ‏فلانا ‏ ‏فوالله ما كانت بيعة ‏ ‏أبي بكر ‏ ‏إلا فلتة فتمت

    al-Bukhari failed to mention the author of this complaint and who that person would have appointed as the caliph after the death of Umar. Clearly, a portion of the companions desagreed with the way Abu Bakr became caliph and openly thought that this appointment was a Faltah, that is a sudden and unexpected event, an error, a mischief. This fact is contrary to what the Sunnis claim today. They claim that Abu Bakr's appointment was based on a unanimous consensus.

    Clearly, the outcome of this secret meeting was sudden and unexpected not only because the Ansars were taken by surprise by the three Muhajireens, who spoiled their plot, but also the outcome took all the Bani Hashem and other prominent companions by surprise. It was a shocking surprise indeed, as you will see. It was an error and mischief because all of Bani Hashim and the prominent companions were never made aware of the secret meeting, the result of which split the companions into two groups: those who opposed Abu Bakr and those who supported Ali. It was a split accompanied by violence and a return to the age of ignorance.

  2. One should not deceive oneself by saying that the pledge of allegiance given to Abu Bakr was given suddenly and it was successful. No doubt, it was like that, but Allah saved (the people) from its evil.
    إنما كانت بيعة ‏ ‏أبي بكر ‏ ‏فلتة وتمت ألا وإنها قد كانت كذلك ولكن الله وقى شرها

    In another version from al-Bazzar in al-Bahrul Zakkhar, Umar said:

    ...لو قد مات عمر أو لو قد مات أمير المؤمنين أقمنا فلاناً فبايعناه وكانت أمارة أبي بكر فلتة أجل والله لقد كانت فلتة...

    Umar ibn al-Khattab admitted that the appointment of Abu Bakr was a Faltah, but Allah saved them from its evil. Badreddeen al-A'aini in Umdatul Qari reports the following from al-Dawudi:

    The baya'at of Abu Bakr was an unexpected event (or an error) because it did not involve the consultation of all of those that were required to consult.
    ، وصرح بذلك في(ص 10)رواية إسحاق بن عيسى عن مالك. وقال الداودي: معنى قوله: قوله: كانت فلتة أنها وقعت من غير مشورة مع جميع من كان ينبغي أن يشاوروا

    Of course, some scholars will strive to deny this and give a different interpretation of Umar's statement, for the sole purpose of exonerating Abu Bakr and Umar of this evil deed! You may exonerate all the companions you desire, but remember the following authentic narrations:

    Narrated 'Abdullah: The Prophet said, "I am your predecessor at the Lake-Fount, and some of you will be brought in front of me till I will see them and then they will be taken away from me and I will say, 'O Lord, my companions!' It will be said, 'You do not know what they did after you had left.'
    حدثني يحيى بن حماد: حدثنا أبو عوانة، عن سليمان، عن شقيق، عن عبد الله، عن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم: أنا فرطكم على الحوض.
    وحدثني عمرو بن علي: حدثنا محمد بن جعفر: حدثنا شعبة، عن المغيرة قال: سمعت أبا وائل، عن عبد الله رضي الله عنه، عن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم قال: أنا فرطكم على الحوض، وليرفعنَّ رجال منكم ثم ليختلجنَّ دوني، فأقول: يا رب أصحابي؟ فيقال: إنك لا تدري ما أحدثوا بعدك

    Narrated Asma 'bint Abu Bakr: The Prophet said, "I will be standing at the Lake-Fount so that I will see whom among you will come to me; and some people will be taken away from me, and I will say, 'O Lord, (they are) from me and from my followers.' Then it will be said, 'Did you notice what they did after you? By Allah, they kept on turning on their heels (turned as renegades).' " The sub-narrator, Ibn Abi Mulaika said, "O Allah, we seek refuge with You from turning on our heels, or being put to trial in our religion."
    ‏حدثنا ‏ ‏سعيد بن أبي مريم ‏ ‏عن ‏ ‏نافع بن عمر ‏ ‏قال حدثني ‏ ‏ابن أبي مليكة ‏ ‏عن ‏ ‏أسماء بنت أبي بكر ‏ ‏رضي الله عنهما ‏ ‏قالت ‏
    ‏قال النبي ‏ ‏صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ ‏إني على الحوض حتى أنظر من يرد علي منكم وسيؤخذ ناس دوني فأقول يا رب مني ومن أمتي فيقال هل شعرت ما عملوا بعدك والله ما برحوا يرجعون على أعقابهم ‏ ‏فكان ‏ ‏ابن أبي مليكة ‏ ‏يقول ‏ ‏اللهم إنا نعوذ بك أن نرجع على أعقابنا أو نفتن عن ديننا

    Narrated Uqba bin Amir: Allah's Apostle offered the funeral prayers of the martyrs of Uhud eight years after (their death), as if bidding farewell to the living and the dead, then he ascended the pulpit and said, "I am your predecessor before you, and I am a witness on you, and your promised place to meet me will be Al-Haud (i.e. the Tank) (on the Day of Resurrection), and I am (now) looking at it from this place of mine. I am not afraid that you will worship others besides Allah, but I am afraid that worldly life will tempt you and cause you to compete with each other for it." That was the last look which I cast on Allah's Apostle.
    ‏حدثنا ‏ ‏محمد بن عبد الرحيم ‏ ‏أخبرنا ‏ ‏زكرياء بن عدي ‏ ‏أخبرنا ‏ ‏ابن المبارك ‏ ‏عن ‏ ‏حيوة ‏ ‏عن ‏ ‏يزيد بن أبي حبيب ‏ ‏عن ‏ ‏أبي الخير ‏ ‏عن ‏ ‏عقبة بن عامر ‏ ‏قال ‏ ‏صلى رسول الله ‏ ‏صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ ‏على قتلى ‏ ‏أحد ‏ ‏بعد ثماني سنين ‏ ‏كالمودع ‏ ‏للأحياء والأموات ثم طلع المنبر فقال ‏ ‏إني بين أيديكم ‏ ‏فرط ‏ ‏وأنا عليكم شهيد وإن موعدكم الحوض وإني لأنظر إليه من مقامي هذا وإني لست أخشى عليكم أن تشركوا ولكني أخشى عليكم الدنيا أن تنافسوها قال فكانت آخر نظرة نظرتها إلى رسول الله ‏ ‏صلى الله عليه وسلم

    Narrated 'Abdullah: The Prophet said, "I am your predecessor at the Lake-Fount (Kauthar) and some men amongst you will be brought to me, and when I will try to hand them some water, they will be pulled away from me by force whereupon I will say, 'O Lord, my companions!' Then the Almighty will say, 'You do not know what they did after you left, they introduced new things into the religion after you.'"

    Narrated Jarir: The Prophet ordered me during Hajjatul-Wada'. "Ask the people to listen." He then said, "Do not become infidels after me by cutting the necks (throats) of one another."
    ‏حدثنا ‏ ‏حفص بن عمر ‏ ‏حدثنا ‏ ‏شعبة ‏ ‏عن ‏ ‏علي بن مدرك ‏ ‏عن ‏ ‏أبي زرعة بن عمرو بن جرير ‏ ‏عن ‏ ‏جرير ‏ ‏أن النبي ‏ ‏صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ ‏قال في حجة الوداع ‏ ‏لجرير ‏ ‏استنصت الناس فقال ‏ ‏لا ترجعوا بعدي كفارا يضرب بعضكم رقاب بعض

    YES, these companions you are trying so hard to exonerate may be among those who will be pulled away from the prophet! You shall see what they have done to Ahlul Bayt when they could not get them to acknowledge Abu Bakr's caliphate. You shall see!

  3. After declaring that the Baya'at of Abu Bakr was an unexpected event, or rather an evil mistake, Umar clarifies why it was so. The first reason is the lack of consultation:
    Remember that whoever gives the pledge of allegiance to anybody among you without consulting the other Muslims, neither that person, nor the person to whom the pledge of allegiance was given, are to be supported, lest they both should be killed.
    ‏من بايع رجلا عن غير مشورة من المسلمين فلا يبايع هو ولا الذي بايعه ‏ ‏تغرة ‏‏أن يقتلا

    Abu Bakr was in the prophet's house when he was informed of the secret meeting of the Ansars. Why did he not inform all the Muhajireen who were present of what he had just learned? Didn't he want them to know? Why did not Umar inform them? Why did he have to pull Abu Bakr out of the house to inform him? They both certainly realized the danger of this event. Nevertheless, they kept quiet and silently left the burial preparations to join the Ansars.

    Is Umar ibn al-Khattab admitting that the election of Abu Bakr was the worst mistake ever made since the tragedy of the prophet? Yes, he is. And what is this new law that Umar decreed?? He made it a law to kill anyone who pledges allegiance to someone else without the consultation of the others. Was he threatening the companions so that the incident of al-Saqifah does not repeat? Why couldn't they stop the conspiracy of the Ansars and wisely asked them to wait until the other Muhajireens became available for consultation? But no, they knew well that if they had done that, Ali would have become the caliph. They could not allow that, which is why they never informed anyone else of this meeting. If Abu Bakr or Umar had no desire in this caliphate, then why did he accept it without the consultation of the others???

  4. 'Ali and Zubair and whoever was with them, opposed us, while the emigrants gathered with Abu Bakr.
    ‏وخالف عنا ‏ ‏علي ‏ ‏والزبير ‏ ‏ومن معهما واجتمع ‏ ‏المهاجرون ‏ ‏إلى ‏ ‏أبي بكر

    It is clear that those who stayed with Ali were opposed the appointment of Abu Bakr. The desapproval of Ali is enough to conclude this act as evil and illegitamate. Unfortunately, the members of the opposition were detained, some of which were forced to pledge allegiance to Abu Bakr. This incident has caused the death of Muhsin, the unborn child of Fatimah al-Zahra, while Umar was trying to burn her house, thus forcing the opposition to come out from their shelter (Attacking the house of Fatimah). This is the person whom the Sunnis label as the Farouq (distinguisher)!!! and try so hard to exonerate him and consider him better than Ali! OPEN YOUR EYES AND START THINKING FOR A MINUTE.

  5. Then there was a hue and cry among the gathering and their voices rose so that I was afraid there might be great disagreement, so I said, 'O Abu Bakr! Hold your hand out.' He held his hand out and I pledged allegiance to him, and then all the emigrants gave the pledge of allegiance and so did the Ansar afterwards
    ‏فكثر ‏ ‏اللغط ‏ ‏وارتفعت الأصوات حتى فرقت من ‏ ‏الاختلاف فقلت ابسط يدك يا ‏ ‏أبا بكر ‏ ‏فبسط يده فبايعته وبايعه ‏ ‏المهاجرون ‏ ‏ثم بايعته ‏ ‏الأنصار

    There was a great turmoil. The Ansars were now divided among themselves. The turmoil continued between the Ansars and the three Muhajireens, each one claiming more rights over the other on the matter of the caliphate. This meeting brought the attendees back to the age of ignorance. Then the Khazraj caved in. They gave this right to the Muhajireens because they are from Quraysh, just like the prophet. Basheer ibn Sa'ad said:

    Mohammad is from Quraish and his people are more rightful to it (the caliphate). Is it not so? I swear on God that He may not see me competing with them in this matter. No, never. Fear God and do not compete with them.".

    Umar immediately seized the opportunity and said to Abu Bakr:
    "No never, by God, we don't take this responsibility as long as you exist. You are the best of the Muhajireen and the second of the two in the cave and the leader of the prayers after the prophet and who dares to challenge you on this matter? Extend your hand so we may pay allegiance to you."

    So in the midst of confusion and turmoil, allegiance was given to Abu Bakr on the basis of being from Quraysh, of being the best of the Muhajireens and the second of the two in the cave and the leader of the prayers after the prophet.

    As for being from Quraish, the Banu Hashem are also from Quraish and are closer to the prophet than Abu Bakr was. In fact Ali is the closest of them all. As for being the best of the Muhajireens, this is preposterous! Please refer to the virtues of Ahlul Bayt and Ali. Morever, who is better: the one with knowledge or the one without it? The one who Allah and his messenger confirmed to love or the one without such confirmation? The one who risked his life by sleeping in the bed of the prophet or the one who did not? The one who never fled from any battle or the one who did? The one who never raised his voice in the presence of the prophet or the one who did? The one who was never an idol-worshipper or the one who was? The one who is pure or the one who is not? The one who is from the prophet and the prophet from him or the one who is neither? The one who knows truth from falsehood or the one who does not? The one we are ordered to love or the one who was not ordered to love?? Tell me, give me one quality or virtue that makes Abu Bakr or Umar better than Ali! Have some commonsense! As for the last excuse, that is the leader of the prayers, we'll discuss this in the next section.

    Abu Bakr said:

    'O Ansar! You deserve all (the qualities that you have attributed to yourselves, but this question (of Caliphate) is only for the Quraish as they are the best of the Arabs as regards descent and home, and I am pleased to suggest that you choose either of these two men, so take the oath of allegiance to either of them as you wish.
    فقال ما ذكرتم فيكم من خير فأنتم له أهل ولن يعرف هذا الأمر إلا لهذا الحي من ‏ ‏قريش ‏ ‏هم أوسط ‏ ‏العرب ‏ ‏نسبا ودارا وقد رضيت لكم أحد هذين الرجلين فبايعوا أيهما شئتم

    In another narration, Abu Bakr said:
    and we, the Muhajireen were the first people to join Islam, we are from his clan and his relatives, and we are the people of the Khilafat and the best of the Arabs with regards to descent and the Arabs gave birth to us and there is not one tribe that does not have someone born from Quraish and this caliphate cannot be but for someone from Quraish...
    فكنا معشر المهاجرين أول الناس إسلاما ونحن عشيرته وأقاربه وذوو رحمه ، ونحن أهل الخلافة وأوسط الناس أنسابا في العرب ، ولدتنا العرب كلها فليس منهم قبيلة إلا لقريش فيها ولادة ، ولن تصلح إلاّ لرجل من قريش ، هم أصبح الناس وجوها وأسلطهم ألسنة وأفضلهم قولا.

    Such was the argument of Abu Bakr! It was all about how superior the Muhajireen were which made them more entitled to the caliphate than the Ansars. It was not about Abu Bakr's virtues or anything else. If this is the case, then who is the most virtuous man among the Muhajireen??? Is it not Imam Ali?? Could Abu Bakr have won his argument if Imam Ali was present in that secret meeting?? Be truthful to yourself when you answer this question.

    Umar also said:
    By God the Arabs will never accept your rule since their Prophet is not from you, but they will not reject the rule of one from whom is their Prophet. If anyone refuses our authority, we will [produce] a clear rebuttal and an evident proof. Who would dispute us with regard to Muhammad's authority and rule except the falsely guided one, or the erring one, or the one damned when we are his close associates and kinsfolk".
    والله لا ترضى العرب أن يؤمروكم ونبيها من غيركم ولكن العرب لا تمنع أن تولي أمرها من كانت النبوة فيهم وولي أمورهم منهم ولنا بذلك على من أبى من العرب الحجة الظاهرة والسلطان المبين من ذا ينازعنا سلطان محمد وإمارته ونحن أولياؤه وعشيرته إلا مدل بباطل أو متجانف لإثم ومتورط في هلكة

    They both used their closeness and kinship to the prophet to justify their merit and merit for this responsibility. So not only the allegiance was given to Abu Bakr amidst great state of confusion, tension and verbal hostilities, but all the reasons for given such allegiance are lies! Moreover, the consensus was far from being unanimous and legitimate because most of the Muhajereens were kept in the dark. So I am not sure how the Sunnis consider this caliphate a pride or legitimate when it was the devil behind the split of the Ummah. It is the reason why I am spending all this time to isolate truth from falsehood.

    al-Ya'aqubi reported in his Tarikh that al-Mundhir ibn Arqam al-Ansari said to the three Muhajireens that if Ali demanded this responsiblity, no one could challenge him for it:

    وقال المنذر بن الأرقم: " إن فيكم لرجلا لو طلب هذا الأمر لم ينازله أحد " يعني علي بن أبي طالب

  6. There was no greater problem than the allegiance pledged to Abu Bakr because we were afraid that if we left the people, they might give the pledge of allegiance after us to one of their men, in which case we would have given them our consent for something against our real wish, or would have opposed them and caused great trouble.
    ‏وإنا والله ما وجدنا فيما حضرنا من أمر أقوى من مبايعة ‏ ‏أبي بكر ‏ ‏خشينا إن فارقنا القوم ولم تكن بيعة أن يبايعوا رجلا منهم بعدنا فإما بايعناهم على ما لا نرضى وإما نخالفهم فيكون فساد

    It appears that Abu Bakr and Umar were worried about the Ansars' decision to elect a leader from among themseleves. According to them, two things could have resulted from such action: either they consent with the Ansars' appointment or they oppose them and start a civil war. If they were so worried, commonsense dictates that they should have informed the other Muhajireens before heading to the Saqifa in order to take wise decisions, and they should have stopped the Ansars' conspiracy. But you don't keep everyone in the dark and turn the conspiracy to your advantage!

  7. When Abu Bakr and his followers returned to the mosque, he said:
    By God, I never insisted on this caliphate, and never wanted it, and never asked for it neither in secrecy nor publicly. But I accepted it because I was afraid of a Fitna.
    والله ما كنت حريصا على الإمارة يوما ولا ليلة قط ، ولا كنت راغبا فيها ، ولا سألتها الله في سر ولا علانية ، ولكن أشفقت من الفتنة . ومالي في الإمارة من راحة، ولكن قلدت أمرا عظيما مالي به من طاقة، ولا يد إلا بتقوية الله -عز وجل-. ولوددت أن أقوى الناس عليها مكاني اليوم.

    Reference:
         Mustadrak al-Hakim, vol 3, #4422/20
         al-Muttaqi al-Hindi, Kanz al-Ummal, vol 5, #14060


    This is a blatant lie. If he never desired or insisted on this position, then WHY DID HE NOT STOP CONSPIRACY OF THE ANSARS???? Would there have been a Fitna if they had tried to talk the Ansars into putting off the meeting until all the companions were available for consultation? They did not even try that option? When they went there, their primary objective was to turn everything to their advantage. They wanted to convince the Ansars that this matter was the right of the Quraysh. And as soon as they succeeded, the seized the opportunity! Is this the behaviour of someone who cares about the stability of the Ummah?

    Were they more worried about this issue than the Banu Hashem?? Did they forget that they gave their allegiance to Ali at Ghadeer Khum in the presence of the prophet?? Certainly, they did not like that? They did not want Ali to be the successor of the prophet. They knew well that if they had stopped the conspiracy of the Ansars, Ali would have become the caliph. There unwillingness to allow Ali become the caliph is what drove them to such evil deeds. Umar's unwillingness to see Ali become the successor of the prophet is what made him interrupt the prophet when he was about to write his will! These two had their own plan and they pulled it off.

    In another narration from ibn Katheer in Bidayat wal Nihayat, al-Muttaqi al-Hindi in Kanz al-U'ummal (vol 5, #14042), al-Haffedh al-Haythami in Majmau'ul Zawa'id (vol 5, Kitab al-Khilafat, #9018), Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal in his Musnad:

    Imam Ahmad said: Ali ibn al-A3yyash narrated to me from .... from Rafe3 al-Ta-i the friend of Abu Bakr al-Siddeeq during the battle of Dhat al-Salasil who asked Abu Bakr about what was being said regarding the pledge of allegiance...Abu Bakr said: they paid allegiance to me and I accepted it from them and I was worried that dissension ensued.
    The Isnad of this narration is strong and good. What this means is that Abu Bakr accepted the Imamat for fear that a Fitna would happen, which is far worse than refusing its acceptance (of the imamat).
    وقال الإمام أحمد: حدثنا علي بن عبَّاس، ثنا الوليد بن مسلم، أخبرني يزيد بن سعيد بن ذي عضوان العبسي عن عبد الملك بن عمير اللخمي، عن رافع الطائي رفيق أبي بكر الصديق في غزوة ذات السلاسل قال: وسألته عما قيل في بيعتهم. فقال: وهو يحدِّثه عما تقاولت به الأنصار وما كلمهم به، وما كلم به عمر بن الخطاب الأنصار، وما ذكرهم به من إمامتي إياهم بأمر رسول الله صلَّى الله عليه وسلَّم في مرضه، فبايعوني لذلك وقبلتها منهم وتخوفت أن تكون فتنة بعدها ردة. وهذا إسناد جيد قوي، ومعنى هذا: أنه رضي الله عنه إنما قبل الإمامة تخوفاً أن يقع فتنة أربى من تركه قبولها، رضي الله عنه وأرضاه


  8. The following narration was recorded in al-Mussannaf by ibn Abi Shayba (vol 5, Kitab al-Maghazi), al-Mutadrak by al-Hakim (vol 3, Kitab Ma'arifat al-Sahaba, #4457), Kanz al-U'immal by al-Muttaqi al-Hindi (vol 5, Kitab Tatimmat al-Khilafat, #14079, also #14147), Majmau'ul Zawa'id by al-Haffedh al-Haythami (vol 5, Kitab al-Khilafat, #8938), Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal (vol 5, Musnad al-Ansar), Mu'ujam al-Tabarani al-Kabeer (Bab al-Zay, Zayd ibn Thabit al-Ansari), Tareekh ibn Asakir and Siyaru A3lam al-Nubala' by al-Dhahabi (vol 2):
    Abu Sae'ed al-Khudri said: "When the prophet passed away, the speakers of al-Ansars said and one of them said: O Muhajireen, whenever the prophet needed a man from your group, he paired him with a man from ours. Therefore, we see that this matter (of the caliphate) should be handled by two men: one man from you and one from us. Other Ansars spoke in support of the same idea, until Zaid ibn Thabit rose to his feet and said: The prophet was from the Muhajireen, therefore the Imam must also be from them and we will be the Imam's Ansars just like we were the prophet's Ansars (helpers).
    Abu Bakr rose to his feet and said: May Allah grant you goodness O people of the Ansars, then he added: By Allah, if you do otherwise, I will not reconcile with you.
    حَدَّثَنَا عَفَّانَ حَدَّثَنَا وُهَيْبٌ حَدَّثَنَا دَاوُد عن أَبِي نَضْرَةَ عن أَبِي سَعِيدٍ، قَالَ: لَمَّا تُوُفِّيَ رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهٌ عَلَيهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَامَ خُطَبَاءُ الأَنْصَارِ، فَجَعَلَ الرَّجُلُ مِنْهُمْ يَقُولُ: يَا مَعْشَرَ المُهَاجِرِينَ، إنَّ رَسُولَ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهٌ عَلَيهِ وَسَلَّمَ كَانَ إذَا اسْتَعْمَلَ رَجُلاً مِنْكُمْ قَرَنَ مَعَهُ رَجُلاً مِنَّا، فَنَرَى أَنْ يَلِيَ هَذَا الأَمْرَ رَجُلاَنِ أَحَدُهُمَا مِنْكُمْ وَالآخَرُ مِنَّا، قَالَ: فَتَتَابَعَتْ خُطَبَاءُ الأَنْصَارِ عَلَى ذَلِكَ، فَقَامَ زَيْدُ بْنُ ثَابِتٍ، فَقَالَ: إنَّ رَسُولَ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهٌ عَلَيهِ وَسَلَّمَ كَانَ مِنْ المُهَاجِرِينَ، وَإِنَّ الإِمَامَ إنَّمَا يَكُونُ مِنْ المُهَاجِرِينَ وَنَحْنُ أَنْصَارُهُ كَمَا كُنَّا أَنْصَارَ رَسُولِ اللهِ، فَقَامَ أَبُو بَكْرٍ، فَقَالَ: جَزَاكُمْ اللَّهُ خَيْراً يَا مَعْشَرَ الأَنْصَارِ، وَثَبَّتَ قَائِلَكُمْ، ثُمَّ قَالَ: وَاللهِ لَوْ فَعَلْتُمْ غَيْرَ ذَلِكَ لَمَا صَالَحْتُكُمْ.

    The above version is from the Mussannaf of ibn Abi Shayba. al-Hakim recorded a slightly longer version and he said the narration is authentic based on the criteria of al-Bukhari and Muslim though they did not record it. al-Muttaqi al-Hindi recorded the same narration as al-Hakim:
    Abu Sae'ed al-Khudri said: "When the prophet passed away, the speakers of al-Ansars said and one of them said: O Muhajireen, whenever the prophet needed a man from your group, he paired him with a man from ours. Therefore, we see that this matter (of the caliphate) should be handled by two men: one man from you and one from us. Other Ansars spoke in support of the same idea, until Zaid ibn Thabit rose to his feet and said: The prophet was from the Muhajireen, therefore the Imam must also be from them and we will be the Imam's Ansars just like we were the prophet's Ansars (helpers).
    Abu Bakr rose to his feet and said: May Allah grant you goodness O people of the Ansars, then he added: By Allah, if you do otherwise, I will not reconcile with you. Then Zayd ibn Thabit took Abu Bakr by the hand and said: This man is your companion so pay allegiance to him. Then they left the place. When Abu Bakr sat on the pulpit, he looked at the faces of the people present but he did not find Ali He asked about him and the some people from the Ansars said: go bring him. Abu Bakr said to Ali: O cousin of the messenger of Allah, do you desire to divide the Muslims?...Then Ali paid allegiance to him.
    حدثنا أبو العباس محمد بن يعقوب، حدثنا جعفر بن محمد بن شاكر، حدثنا عفان بن مسلم، حدثنا وهيب، حدثنا داود بن أبي هند، حدثنا أبو نضرة، عن أبي سعيد الخدري -رضي الله تعالى عنه- قال: لما توفي رسول الله -صلَّى الله عليه وسلَّم-، قام خطباء الأنصار، فجعل الرجل منهم يقول: يا معشر المهاجرين، إن رسول الله -صلَّى الله عليه وسلَّم- كان إذا استعمل رجلا منكم، قرن معه رجلا منا، فنرى أن يلي هذا الأمر رجلان، أحدهما منكم، والآخر منا.
    قال: فتتابعت خطباء الأنصار على ذلك، فقام زيد بن ثابت فقال: إن رسول الله -صلَّى الله عليه وسلَّم- كان من المهاجرين، وإن الإمام يكون من المهاجرين، ونحن أنصاره كما كنا أنصار رسول الله -صلَّى الله عليه وسلَّم-.
    فقام أبو بكر -رضي الله تعالى عنه- فقال: جزاكم الله خيرا يا معشر الأنصار، وثبت قائلكم، ثم قال: أما لو فعلتم غير ذلك لما صالحناكم، ثم أخذ زيد بن ثابت بيد أبي بكر فقال: هذا صاحبكم فبايعوه، ثم انطلقوا، فلما قعد أبو بكر على المنبر، نظر في وجوه القوم فلم ير عليا، فسأل عنه، فقال ناس من الأنصار: فأتوا به. فقال أبو بكر: ابن عم رسول الله -صلَّى الله عليه وسلَّم- وختنه، أردت أن تشق عصا المسلمين .
    فقال مثل قوله: لا تثريب يا خليفة رسول الله -صلَّى الله عليه وسلَّم-. فبايعاه.
    هذا حديث صحيح على شرط الشيخين ولم يخرجاه

    al-Haffidh al-Haythami said that this narration was also recorded by Ahmad ibn Hanbal and al-Tabarani and that all its subnarrators those of authentic narrations. al-Dhahabi also accepted the narration as authentic in terms of the Isnad.

    According to the above narration, Abu Bakr had no problem with the idea that the successor of the prophet must be from the Muhajireen given that the prophet himself was from them. In fact, this idea worked to his advantage! Well, allow me to go one step further. The prophet is not only from the Muhajireen, but he is also from Bani Hashim and therefore, his successer must also be from the same tribe, especially that the tribe of Hashim is superior to all other tribes. But of course, Abu Bakr would have rejected this idea because it would not have worked in his favor! Also, it is a fact that Imam Ali did not pay allegiance to Abu Bakr but six months later!

al-Tabari (in his Tarikh) reported another narration in which the Ansars said: "We will not pledge anyone but Ali". Why did they want to pledge allegiance to Ali?
حدثنا ابن حميد قال حدثنا جرير عن مغيرة عن أبي معشر زياد بن كليب عن أبي أيوب عن إبراهيم قال لما قبض النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم كان أبو بكر غائبا فجاء بعد ثلاث ولم يجترىء أحد أن يكشف عن وجهه حتى اربد بطنه فكشف عن وجهه وقبل بين عينيه ثم قال بأبي أنت وأمي طبت حيا وطبت ميتا ثم خرج أبو بكر فحمد الله وأثنى عليه ثم قال من كان يعبد الله فإن الله حي لا يموت ومن كان يعبد محمدا فإن محمدا قد مات ثم قرأ وما محمد إلا رسول قد خلت من قبله الرسل أفإن مات أو قتل انقلبتم على أعقابكم ومن ينقلب على عقبيه فلن يضر الله شيئا وسيجزي الله الشاكرين ( 1 ) وكان عمر يقول لم يمت وكان يتوعد الناس بالقتل في ذلك فاجتمع الأنصار في سقيفة بني ساعدة ليبايعوا سعد بن عبادة فبلغ ذلك أبا بكر فأتاهم ومعه عمر وأبو عبيدة بن الجراح فقال ما هذا فقالوا منا أمير ومنكم أمير فقال أبو بكر منا الأمراء ومنكم الوزراء ثم قال أبو بكر إني قد رضيت لكم أحد هذين الرجلين عمر أو أبا عبيدة إن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم جاءه قوم فقالوا ابعث معنا أمينا فقال لأبعثن معكم أمينا حق أمين فبعث معهم أبا عبيدة بن الجراح وأنا أرضى لكم أبا عبيدة فقام عمر فقال أيكم تطيب نفسه أن يخلف قدمين قدمهما النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم فبايعه عمر وبايعه الناس فقالت الأنصار أو بعض الأنصار لا نبايع إلا عليا

حدثنا ابن حميد قال حدثنا جرير عن مغيرة عن زياد بن كليب قال أتى عمر بن الخطاب منزل علي وفيه طلحة والزبير ورجال من المهاجرين فقال والله لأحرقن عليكم أو لتخرجن إلى البيعة فخرج عليه الزبير مصلتا السيف فعثر فسقط السيف من يده فوثبوا عليه فأخذوه

حدثنا زكريا بن يحيى الضرير قال حدثنا أبو عوانة قال حدثنا داود بن عبدالله الأودي عن حميد بن عبدالرحمن الحميري قال توفي رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم وأبو بكر في طائفة من المدينة فجاء فكشف الثوب عن وجهه فقبله وقال فداك أبي وأي ما أطيبك حيا وميتا مات محمد ورب الكعبة قال ثم انطلق إلى المنبر فوجد عمر بن الخطاب قائما يوعد الناس ويقول إن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم حي لم يمت وإنه خارج إلى من أرجف به وقاطع أيديهم وضارب أعناقهم وصالبهم قال فتكلم أبو بكر وقال أنصت قال فأبى عمر أن ينصت فتكلم أبو بكر وقال إن الله قال لنبيه صلى الله عليه وسلم إنك ميت وإنهم ميتون ثم إنكم يوم القيامة عند ربكم تختصمون ( 2 ) وما محمد إلا رسول قد خلت من قبله الرسل أفإن مات أو قتل انقلبتم على أعقابكم ( 3 ) حتى ختم الآية فمن كان يعبد محمدا فقد مات إلهه الذي كان يعبده ومن كان يعبد الله لا شريك له فإن الله حي لا يموت قال فحلف رجال أدركناهم من أصحاب محمد صلى الله عليه وسلم ما علما أن الآيتين نزلتا حتى قرأهما أبو بكر يومئذ إذ جاء رجل يسعى فقال هاتيك الأنصار قد اجتمعت في ظلة بني ساعدة يبايعون رجلا منهم يقولون منا أمير ومن قريش أمير قال فانطلق أبو بكر وعمر يتقاودان حتى أتياهم فأراد عمر أن يتكلم فنهاه أبو بكر فقال لا أعصي خليفة النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم في يوم مرتين قال فتكلم أبو بكر فلم يترك شيئا نزل في الأنصار ولا ذكره رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم من شأنهم إلا وذكره وقال ولقد علمتم أن رسول الله قال لو سلك الناس واديا وسلكت الأنصار واديا سلكت وادي الأنصار ولقد علمت يا سعد أن رسول الله قال وأنت قاعد قريش ولاة هذا الأمر فبر الناس تبع لبرهم وفاجرهم تبع لفاجرهم قال فقال سعد صدقت فنحن الوزراء وأنتم الأمراء قال فقال عمر ابسط يدك يا أبا بكر فلأبايعك فقال أبو بكر بل أنت يا عمر فأنت أقوى لها مني قال وكان عمر أشد الرجلين قال وكان كل واحد منهما يريد صاحبه يفتح يده يضرب عليها ففتح عمر يد أبي بكر وقال إن لك قوتي مع قوتك قال فبايع الناس واستثبتوا للبيعة وتخلف علي والزبير واخترط الزبير سيفه وقال لا أغمده حتى يبايع علي فبلغ ذلك أبا بكر وعمر فقال عمر خذوا سيف الزبير فاضربوا به الحجر قال فانطلق إليهم عمر فجاء بهما تعبا وقال لتبايعان وأنتما طائعان أو لتبايعان وأنتما كارهان فبايعا

Those who refused to pay allegiance to Abu Bakr
A very unfortunate event took place when Ahlul Bayt categorically refused to pay allegiance to Abu Bakr. This is a calamity the Sunni refrain from talking about and even DENY, even though it is reported in many of their history books, as well as the books of the Shia'a. This calamity is the attack of the house of Fatima, the beloved daughter of the prophet.

Many of the prominent companions who opposed the caliphate of Abu Bakr were sheltered in the house of Fatimah and Ali.

Umar said: ...Ali Ibn Abi Talib, Zubair Ibn Awwam and those who were with them separated from us (and gathered) in the house of Fatimah, the daughter of the messenger of Allah...
...إن عليا والزبير ومن كان معهما تخلفوا في بيت فاطمة رضي الله عنها بنت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم
Reference:
     Ahmad Ibn Hanbal: v1,p55 [entire book: p72, #391]
     Sirah al-Nabawiyyah, by Ibn Hisham, v4, p309
     History of Tabari

...And no doubt after the death of the Prophet we were informed that the Ansar disagreed with us and gathered in the shed of Bani Sa'da. 'Ali and Zubair and whoever was with them, opposed us, while the emigrants gathered with Abu Bakr...
Reference:
     Sahih Bukhari, Volume 8, Book 82, Number 817, Book: al-hudood (al-muhharibeen); Page 1442, Number 6830 (Arabic version)

Ibn Abd Rabbah al-Malik writes the following in his Aqdul Fareed:

"Those that were opposed to the bayya of Abu Bakr were 'Ali, Abbas, Zubayr and Sa'd bin Ubada, amongst whom 'Ali and Abbas were sitting in the house of Fatima. At that time Abu Bakr sent Umar with the order 'that you remove those gathered in the house of Fatima, and if they refuse to come out then kill them'. Umar brought fire to the door and Fatima said 'Ibn Khattab have you arrived in order to set my home on fire?'. Umar replied 'I have come with the intention that you people give bayya to Abu Bakr as others have done".
الذين تخلفوا عن بيعة أبي بكر - في والعباس والزبير وسعد بن عُبادة. فأما عليّ والعباس والزبير، فقعدوا في بيت فاطمة حتى بَعث إليهم أبو بكر عمرَ ابن الخطاب ليُخرِجهم من بيت فاطمة، وقال له: إِن أبوا فقاتِلْهم. فأقبل بقَبس من نار على أن يُضرم عليهم الدار، فلقيته فاطمةُ، فقالت: يا بن الخطاب، أجئت لتُحرق دارنا؟ قال: نعم، أو تدخلوا فيما دخلتْ فيه الأمة. فخرج علي حتى دخل على أبي بكر فبايعه
Sunni Reference:
     al-Aqdul Fareed by Ibn Abd Rabbah al-Malik, Arabic copy

Ibn Abi Shaybah in al-Mussanaf writes a more exonerating version of the story:

When Abu Bakr was given the Baya'at, Ali and al-Zubayr used to consult Fatima and then decided not to give the baya'at to Abu Bakr. When Umar was informed of it, he went to Fatima's house and said: "O' daughter of the Prophet! I didn't love anyone as much as I loved your father, nor anyone after him is more loving to me as you are. But I swear by Allah that if these people assemble here with you, then this love of mine would not prevent me from setting your house on fire." When Umar left the house, those present came to Fatima and she told them: "Do you know that Umar came here and swore by Allah that he will burn all of use and the house if you don't give your baya'at to Abu Bakr? So they left and gave their Baya'at to Abu Bakr."
حدثنا محمد بن بشر نا عبيد الله بن عمر حدثنا زيد بن أسلم عن أبيه أسلم أنه حين بويع لابي بكر بعد رسول الله (ص) كان علي والزبير يدخلان على فاطمة بنت رسول الله (ص) فيشاورونها ويرتجعون في أمرهم ، فلما بلغ ذلك عمر بن الخطاب خرج حتى دخل على فاطمة فقال : يا بنت رسول الله (ص) ! والله ما من أحد أحب إلينا من أبيك ، وما من أحد أحب إلينا بعد أبيك منك ، وأيم الله ما ذاك بمانعي إن اجتمع هؤلاء النفر عندك ، إن أمرتهم أن يحرق عليهم البيت ، قال : فلما خرج عمر جاءوها فقالت : تعلمون أن عمر قد جاءني وقد حلف بالله لئن عدتم ليحرقن عليكم البيت وأيم الله ليمضين لما حلف عليه ، فانصرفوا راشدين ، فروا رأيكم ولا ترجعوا إلي ، فانصرفوا عنها فلم يرجعوا إليها حتى بايعوا لابي بكر

The fact is that Ali did not give the Baya'at to Abu Bakr until after the demise of Fatima. Neverthless, Ahlul Bayt were threatened by Umar! Although the story is not accurate, it indicates that Umar was forcing the companions from the opposition to give their Baya'at to Abu Bakr.

Abil Fateh al-Shahrastani in al-Milal wal Nahal writes the following:

...Umar was shouting: "Burn her house with whoever is inside." In the house were Ali, Fatima, al-Hassan and al-Hussein.
وكان يصيح: احرقوا دارها بمن فيها، وما كان في الدار غير عليّ وفاطمة والحسن والحسين

Abdul Rabb al-Andalusi in his A'aqdul Fareed wrote under the title Those who refused to give the Baya'at to Abu Bakr: Ali, al-Abbas, al-Zubayr and Sa'ad ibn I'ibadat:

As for Ali, al-Abbas, al-Zubayr, they stayed in the house of Fatima until Abu Bakr sent to them Umar to get them out of the house of Fatima. Abu Bakr told Umar: "If they refuse, fight them." So Umar brought with him a burning torch to burn the house on them. Fatima met him at the door and asked him: "Ya ibn al-Khattab, have you come to burn our house?"
ابن عبد ربّه الأندلسي (ت 328 هـ) قال تحت عنوان: الذين تخلفوا عن بيعة أبي بكر: علي، والعباس، والزبير، وسعد بن عبادة. فأمّا علي (عليه السلام) والعباس والزبير فقعدوا في بيت فاطمة (عليها السلام)حتى بعث إليهم أبو بكر عمر بن الخطاب ليخرجوا من بيت فاطمة (عليها السلام)وقال له: إن أبوا فقاتلهم! فأقبل بقبس من نار على أن يضرم عليهم الدار، فلقيته فاطمة (عليها السلام)، فقالت: يا ابن الخطاب، أجئت لتحرق دارنا؟ قال: نعم، أو تدخلوا فيما دخلت فيه الأُمّة

ibn Jareer al-Tabari writes in his Tarikh:

Umar Ibn al-Khattab came to the house of Ali. Talha and Zubair and some of the immigrants were also in the house. Umar cried out: "By God, either you come out to render the oath of allegiance, or I will set the house on fire." al-Zubair came out with his sword drawn. As he stumbled (upon something), the sword fell from his hand so they jumped over him and seized him."
حدثنا ابن حميد قال حدثنا جرير عن مغيرة عن زياد بن كليب قال أتى عمر بن الخطاب منزل علي وفيه طلحة والزبير ورجال من المهاجرين فقال والله لأحرقن عليكم أو لتخرجن إلى البيعة فخرج عليه الزبير مصلتا السيف فعثر فسقط السيف من يده فوثبوا عليه فأخذوه

  1. It is reported by ibn Atheer in Asadul al-Ghabat and al-Kamil Fil-Tarikh that all of Bani Hashim rejected the caliphate of Abu Bakr.

  2. al-Masu'udi in Muruj al-Dhahab said: No one from Bani Hashim accepted the allegiance of Abu Bakr until the death of Fatima.
    ولم يبايعه أحد من بني هاشم حتى ماتت فاطمة رضي الله عنها

  3. ibn Atheer in Asadul Ghabat, al-Tabari in al-Ryadd al-Naddhira, al-Ya'aqubi and Abul Fida' have all reported that Khalid ibn Sae'ed ibn al-A'ass did not pledge allegiance of Abu Bakr.

  4. ibn Atheer, al-Halabi (al-Seerah al-Halabiya) and al-Tabari have all reported that Talha ibn Ubaydallah did not pledge allegiance to Abu Bakr.

  5. al-Halabi, al-Ya'aqubi (in his Tarikh), al-Tabari and Abul Fida'a have reported that al-Miqdad al-Aswad, Salman al-Farisi, Ammar ibn Yassir, al-Bara' ibn A'azib and Uba ibn Ka'ab did not pledge allegiance to Abu Bakr.

So besides Ahlul Bayt, several other companions were present with them, such as Talha and al-Zubayr, Sa'ad ibn Abi Waqqas, al-Abbas, and certainly the known supporters of Ali such as Salman al-Farisi, Ammar ibn Yassir, Abu Dharr al-Ghifari and al-Miqdad al-Aswad. Abu Bakr and Umar were forcing the opposition to give their Baya'at. They even threatened to burn the house of Ahlul Bayt. Knowing the virtues Ahlul Bayt and their status with regards to being the only guidance to the Ummah (in conjunction with the Quran) after the prophet, is it not enough to say that their rejection of the caliphate of Abu Bakr is proof of its illegitimacy? Ahlul Bayt are like the prophet, when they desagree with something, it implies its invalidity. What gives them such a high status is their unmatched knowledge, wisdom, purity, piety and status in the sight of Allah and His prophet.

Would they be lying or expressing their political opinion? Would they be seeking the worldly things and give up the Hereafter for the caliphate??? Is this how you view Ahlul Bayt. These are Ahlul Bayt for God's sake. Nothing comes out of their mouth but truth. They speak only out with knowledge and wisdom and do not express opinions like the companions. Everything they express is based on the Quran and the Sunnah of the prophet. Therefore, their word is above all words. Their authority is above all authorities.

Ali and Fatima defend their position
ibn Qutayba al-Dinuri wrote in al-Imamah wal Siyasa:
Ali's refusal of the baya'at of Abu Bakr:
Ali was brought to Abu Bakr and he said: 'I am the servant of Allah and the brother of the messenger of Allah.' It was then said to him: give your Baya'at to Abu Bakr. Ali responded: I am more rightful of it than you all. I will not pay allegiance to you when it is more proper that you all pay allegiance to me. You have seized this office from the Ansars on the premise of your kinship to the prophet and you now you forcefully want to take it from us, Ahlul Bayt. Did you not claim before the Ansar that you were more worthy than they of the caliphate because Muhammad came from among you – and thus they gave you leadership and surrendered command? I now contend against you with the same argument. It is we who are more worthy of the Messenger of God, living or dead. Give us our due right if you truly have faith in God, or else bear the charge of wilfully doing wrong.
Umar said to him: I will not let you leave unless give your Baya'at.
Ali responded to him: Milk some milk and you will have some of it. you are protective of his Imarat today so you can get it tomorrow. By Allah O Umar, I will not yield to your commands and I shall not pledge loyalty to him.
Then Abu Bakr: "O Ali! If you do not desire to give your baya'a, I am not going to force you to do so."
Abu Ubayda ibn al-Jarrah intervened and said to Ali: "O cousin, you are very young and these people are the elders of your people. You do not have their experience and knowledge and I do not see Abu Bakr but more qualified for this matter, so give this matter to him. If you live longer and remain among us, you will be more suitable for this office...
Ali said: 'O Muhajireen, do not take the sultan of Muhammad amongst the Arab out of his house to your houses and do not push away his family from their virtues among the people and their rights. By Allah O people of the Muhajireen, we are more rightful to this matter because we are Ahlul Bayt, and we are more rightful to it than you are as long as their is one of us who reads the Book of Allah and is a Faqeeh in the religion of Allah and a knowledgeable man in the Sunnat of the messenger and skilled in the matters of people and pushes away from the people all bad things and who is capable of giving equal treatment among the people. By Allah, it is among us and do not follow your desires or you will stray from the path of Allah and you will distant yourselves further from the truth.
Qays ibn Sa'ad said: If the Ansars had heard these words from you, O Ali, before they gave their allegiance to Abu Bakr, no one would have disagreed about you.
One night, Ali and Fatima went to the Ansars asking for their support and they used to say: O daughter of the messenger of Allah, we have already given our allegiance to this man. If your husband and your cousin had come to us before Abu Bakr did, we would have done so. Ali said: Did you want me to leave the prophet's burial preparations so I can challenge the people on this matter? Then Fatima said: What Abul Hassan did was correct. They have done some deeds Allah will hold them responsible for.
إباءة علي بن أبي طالب بيعة أبي بكر :
ثم إن عليا كرم الله وجهه أتى به إلى أبي بكر وهو يقول: أنا عبد الله وأخو رسوله، فقيل له بايع أبا بكر، فقال: أنا أحق بهذا الأمر منكم، لا أبايعكم وأنتم أولى بالبيعة لي، أخذتم هذا الأمر من الأنصار، واحتججتم عليهم بالقرابة من النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم، وتأخذونه منا أهل البيت غصبا؟ ألستم زعمتم للأنصار أنكم أولى بهذا الأمر منهم لما كان محمد منكم، فأعطوكم المقادة، وسلموا إليكم الإمارة، وأنا احتج عليكم بمثل ما احتججتم به على الأنصار نحن أولى برسول الله حيا وميتا فأنصفونا إن كنتم تؤمنون وإلا فبوءوا بالظلم وأنتم تعلمون. فقال له عمر: إنك لست متروكا حتى تبايع، فقال له علي: احلب حلبا لك شطره، واشدد له اليوم أمره يردده عليك غدا. ثم قال: والله يا عمر لا أقبل قولك ولا أبايعه. فقال له أبو بكر: فإن لم تبايع فلا أكرهك، فقال أبو عبيدة بن الجراح لعلي كرم الله وجهه: يا بن عم إنك حديث السن وهؤلاء مشيخة قومك، ليس لك مثل تجربتهم، ومعرفتهم بالأمور، ولا أرى أبا بكر إلا أقوى على هذا الأمر منك، وأشد احتمالا واضطلاعا به، فسلم لأبي بكر هذا الأمر، فإنك إن تعش ويطل بك بقاء، فأنت لهذا الأمر خليق وبه حقيق، في فضلك ودينك، وعلمك وفهمك، وسابقتك ونسبك وصهرك. فقال علي كرم الله وجهه: الله الله يا معشر المهاجرين، لا تخرجوا سلطان محمد في العرب عن داره وقعر بيته، إلى دوركم وقعور بيوتكم، ولا تدفعوا أهله عن مقامه في الناس وحقه، فوالله يا معشر المهاجرين، لنحن أحق الناس به. لأنا أهل البيت، ونحن أحق بهذا الأمر منكم ما كان فينا القارئ لكتاب الله، الفقيه في دين الله، العالم بسنن رسول الله، المضطلع بأمر الرعية، المدافع عنهم الأمور السيئة، القاسم بينهم بالسوية، والله إنه لفينا، فلا تتبعوا الهوى فتضلوا عن سبيل الله، فتتزدادوا من الحق بعدا.
فقال بشير بن سعد الأنصاري: لو كان هذا الكلام سمعته الأنصار منك يا علي قبل بيعتها لأبي بكر، ما اختلف عليك اثنان. قال: وخرج علي كرم الله وجهه يحمل فاطمة بنت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم على دابة ليلا في مجالس الأنصار تسألهم النصرة، فكانوا يقولون: يا بنت رسول الله، قد مضت بيعتنا لهذا الرجل ولو أن زوجك وابن عمك سبق إلينا قبل أبي بكر ما عدلنا به، فيقول علي كرم الله وجهه أفكنت أدع رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم في بيته لم أدفنه، وأخرج أنازع الناس سلطانه؟ فقالت فاطمة: ما صنع أبو الحسن إلا ما كان ينبغي له، ولقد صنعوا ما لله حسيبهم وطالبهم.

ibn Atheer in Asadul Ghabat:
From Yehya ibn Urwat al-Muradi who heard Imam Ali say: the prophet passed away and I was the most rightful of this matter but the Muslims gathered around Abu Bakr, so I listened and obeyed. Then Abu Bakr fell sick and I did not think he would keep it away from me, but he gave it to Umar. I listened and obeyed. Then Uthman was murdered, then the people came and gave me their allegiance voluntarily and not forcefully, then they snatched it away from me. By Allah, I did not find by the sword...
عن يحيى بن عروة المرادي قال : سمعت عليا ، رضي الله عنه ، يقول : ( قبض النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم ، وأنا أرى أني أحق بهذا الأمر ، فاجتمع المسلمون على أبي بكر ، فسمعت وأطعت ، ثم إن أبا بكر أصيب ، فظننت أنه لا يعدلها عني ، فجعلها في عمر ، فسمعت وأطعت ، ثم إن عثمان قتل ، فجاءوا فبايعوني ، طائعين غير مكرهين ، ثم خلعوا بيعتي ، فوالله ما وجدت إلا السيف ، أو الكفر بما أنزل الله ، عز وجل ، على محمد صلى الله عليه وسلم

al-Ya'aqubi in his Tareekh:
al-Barra' ibn A'azeb came knocking on the door of Bani Hashim and said: O people of Bani Hashem, allegiance was given to Abu Bakr. Some of them said: it was not expected from the Muslims to do something without us being part of it while we are the closest people to the prophet (or the most worthy of him). al-Abbas said: they have done it by the Lord of the Ka'aba!
وجاء البراء بن عازب ، فضرب الباب على بني هاشم وقال : يا معشر بني هاشم ، بويع أبو بكر. فقال بعضهم : ما كان المسلمون يحدثون حدثاً نغيب عنه ، ونحن أولى بمحمد ـ صلّى الله عليه وآله وسلّم ـ. فقال العباس : فعلوها ، ورب الكعبة

al-Masu'udi in Muruj al-Dhahab:
لما بويع أبو بكر في يوم السقيفة وجُددت البيعة له يوم الثلاثاء على العامة ، خرج علي ـ عليه السلام ـ فقال : أفسدت علينا أمورنا ، ولم تستشر ، ولم تَرْعَ لنا حقا. فقال أبو بكر : بلى ، ولكني خشيت الفتنة

The fact is that Abu Bakr claimed that the Muhajireens were more entitled to the caliphate because the prophet is from them; because they were the first to accept Islam and the first to support the prophet; because they were from Quraish as was the prophet; because the Muhajireens were the closest associates and kinsfolk of the prophet. This is how Abu Bakr and Umar won their argument. It is only on this basis that Abu Bakr became caliph, and nothing else.

When Imam Ali understood their argument, he used it against them to prove to them that even with their pretext, Ali was still the most entitled to the caliphate. Not only was he from Quraish, but also from Bani Hashim; not only was he a companion, but he was the appointed brother of the prophet; not only was he a Muslim, but he was never a polytheist; he was from the prophet and the prophet was from him; he was the closest to purity one can be to that prophet of the prophet; he was the first man to believe in the prophet; he was the first to pray towards both Qibla; he is from Ahlul Bayt the second of the Thaqalayn; Allah made it mandatory upon all to love him; he was the one the prophet paired with the Quran and truth and from which they would never separate, etc. Can Abu Bakr or any companion compare himself to Imam Ali?? It is for this exact reason Imam Ali did not stop reminding the people of his unique virtues and how he was exceptional and the closest one can ever be to the prophet! If Imam Ali was at the Saqifa, he would have been the caliph. But maybe and afterall, there is a reason he was not informed about it!!!

So don't come and tell me that Abu Bakr is better than Ali because the former was the first caliph. Such claim is like putting the carriage before the horse! Only the best person after the prophet and the closest one to him in terms of blood-relation and qualities was qualified for such a noble title. So you have to be that person to be the caliph. Imam Ali was that person while Abu Bakr was not. What I want to say is that being the best person after the prophet is a pre-requisiste and requirement for the caliphate and not a consequence of it. Imam Ali was far superior to Abu Bakr and any companion before the demise of the prophet and remains so after. Yes, Imam Ali did not become the successor of the prophet but this does not strip off his high and noble ranking. He remains the best person after the prophet regardless of whether he was caliph or not. These are the facts.

In fact, this same logic (closeness to the prophet) was used by others as well. Here is a narration recorded by al-Muttaqi al-Hindi in Kanz al-Ummal (vol 5, #14282):
Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiya: When Uthman was murdered, Imam Ali remained in the house of Abi Amru ibn Hussayn al-Ansari. The people came to him to the house and rushed to give him the Baya'at. But Imam Ali refused and said: I do not want it. Go give it to Talha or al-Zubayr. They said to him: come with us to them. Ali and the people headed to Talha ibn Ubaydallah and he said to him: the people gathered to pay allegiance to me but I do not want it. Say put your hand in order to pay allegiance to you on the basis of the Book of Allah and the Sunnat of the prophet. Talha said to him: You deserve it more than me and you have more right to it on the basis of your precedence and your kinship...Ali said: I am worried that your break your allegiance and abandon me. Talha said: do not worry and by Allah you will not see anything of the kind from me.
Then they headed to Zubayr, and Ali told him the same thing he told Talha and the response was similar...
عن محمّد بن الحنفية قال : لما قتل عثمان استخفى علي في دار لأبي عمرو بن حصين الأنصاري ، فاجتمع الناس فدخلوا عليه الدار فتداكّوا على يده ليبايعوه تداك الإبل الهيم على حياضها وقالوا : نبايعك. قال : لا حاجة لي في ذلك ، عليكم بطلحة والزبير. قالوا : فانطلق معنا ، فخرج علي وأنا معه في جماعة من الناس ، حتى أتينا طلحة بن عبيد الله فقال له : إن الناس قد اجتمعوا ليبايعوني ولا حاجة لي في بيعتهم ، فأبسط يدك أبايعك على كتاب الله وسنة رسوله. فقال له طلحة : أنت أولى بذلك مني وأحق ، لسابقتك وقرابتك ، وقد اجتمع لك من هؤلاء الناس من قد تفرّق عني ، فقال له علي : أخاف أن تنكث بيعتي وتغدر بي. قال : لا تخافنّ ذلك فو الله لا ترى من قبلي أبدا شيئا تكره. قال : الله عليك كفيل.
ثم أتى الزبير بن العوام ونحن معه فقال له مثل ما قال لطلحة ، وردّ عليه مثل الذي ردّ عليه طلحة.
وكان طلحة قد أخذ لقاحا لعثمان ومفاتيح ، وكان الناس اجتمعوا عليه ليبايعوه ولم يفعلوا ، فضرب الركبان بخبره إلى عائشة وهي بسرف فقالت : كأني انظر إلى إصبعه تبايع بخب وغدر.
قال ابن الحنفيّة : لما اجتمع الناس على علي قالوا له : هذا الرجل قد قتل ولا بد للناس من إمام ، ولا نجد لهذا الأمر أحق منك ولا أقدم سابقة ولا أقرب من رسول الله صلّى الله عليه وسلّم رحما منك ، قال : لا تفعلوا فإني وزيرا خير مني لكم أميرا. قالوا : والله ما نحن بفاعلين أبدا حتى نبايعك ، وتداكوا على يده ، فلما راى ذلك قال : إن بيعتي لا تكون في خلوة إلاّ في المسجد ظاهرا ، وأمر مناديا فنادى المسجد المسجد ، فخرج وخرج الناس معه فصعد المنبر فحمد الله وأثنى عليه ثم قال : حق وباطل ولكل أهل ، فلئن كثر الباطل لقديما فعل ولئن قل الحق فلربما ، ولعل ما أدبر شيء فأقبل ، ولئن ردّ إليكم أمركم لسعدتم ، فإني أخشى أن تكونوا في فترة وما علي إلا الجهد ، سبق الرجلان وقام الثالث ثلاثة واثنان ليس معهما سادس : ملك مقرب ، ومن أخذ الله ميثاقه ، وصديق نجا ، وساع مجتهد ، وطالب يرجو ، هلك من ادعى وخاب من افترى ، اليمين والشمال مضلة والطريق المنهج عليه باقي الكتاب وآثار النبوة ، وإن الله أدب هذه الأمة بالسوط والسيف ، ليس لأحد فيما عندنا هوادة ، فاستووا ببيوتكم وأصلحوا ذات بينكم وتعاطوا الحق فيما بينكم ، فمن أبرز صفحته معاندا للحق هلك ، والتوبة من ورائكم. وأقول قولي هذا واستغفر الله لي ولكم ، فهو أول خطبة خطبها بعد ما استخلف.

Here is an interesting Hadith from al-Durr al-Manthur by al-Suyuti, which proves that kinship is a requirement for the caliphate:
al-Tabarani recorded the narration from ibn Abbas who said: when the prophet returned from the battle of Hunayn, Allah revealed to him When there comes the help of Allah and the victory... to the end of the story. The prophet said: O Ali ibn Abi Talib, O Fatima daughter of Muhammad, the help of Allah and the victory have come and men are entering the religion of Allah in companies...
O Ali, there will be Jihad towards the believers after me. Ali responded: what Jihad will we be doing towards the believers who say 'we believe'. The prophet responded: Jihad against innovation in religion when they act based on their opinions while there is no opinion in religion. However the religion is from Allah who ordered it. Ali said: what if someone presents a matter to us which was not revealed in the Quran or in your Sunnat? The prophet said: You discuss it among yourselves in consultation and do not let the answer be based on someone's opinion. If I were to leave someone to succeed me, no one other than you will be worthy of it on the basis of your precedence in Islam and your kinshid to the messenger of Allah and to you belong the leader of the women of the worlds...
أخرج الطبراني عن ابن عباس رضي‌الله‌عنه قال : لما أقبل رسول الله صلّى الله عليه وسلّم من غزوة حنين أنزل عليه ( إِذا جاءَ نَصْرُ اللهِ وَالْفَتْحُ ) إلى آخر القصة. قال رسول الله صلّى الله عليه وسلّم : يا علي بن أبي طالب يا فاطمة بنت محمّد جاء نصر الله والفتح ورأيت الناس يدخلون في دين الله أفواجا ، فسبحان ربي وبحمده واستغفره ، إنه كان توابا.
ويا علي ، إنه يكون بعدي في المؤمنين الجهاد. قال : على ما نجاهد المؤمنين الذين يقولون آمنا؟ قال : على الإحداث في الدين إذا عملوا بالرأي ولا رأي في الدين ، إنما الدين من الرب أمره ونهيه ، قال علي : يا رسول الله ، أرأيت إن عرض لنا أمر لم ينزل فيه القرآن ولم يمض فيه سنة منك! قال : تجعلونه شورى بين العابدين من المؤمنين ولا تقضونه برأي خاصة ، فلو كنت مستخلفا أحدا لم يكن أحد أحق منك لقدمك في الإسلام وقرابتك من رسول الله وصهرك ، وعندك سيدة نساء العالمين ، وقبل ذلك من كان من بلاء أبي طالب ، ونزل القرآن وأنا حريص أن أراعي في ذلك

Did Ali pledge allegiance to Abu Bakr six months later?
Contrary to what the mainstream Sunnis believe, Ali did not pledge allegiance to Abu Bakr, at least until six months later, after the demise of his wife Fatimah al-Zahra, according to a narration in Sahih al-Bukhari. Many scholars or historians wanted to make their audience to believe the contrary. Why? So that they don't realize that the Shia claims are correct and continue to accuse them of concocting stories. These scholars and historians tried so hard to make everyone believe that the Baya'at of Abu Bakr was smooth and unanimous. Well, surprise, surprise! The truth managed to make its way thru many books.

Logically, how do you expect full compliance from all of those who were kept out of the secret meeting of al-Saquifa? How do you think they felt when they learned of its treacherous outcome? How do you think Ali, al-Abbas, Ammar ibn Yassir and many other companions took the blow?? You think they were happy? You don't think such an evil will face strong opposition??? How do you think they felt when they realized that Abu Bakr, Umar and Abu Ubayda, along with many of the Ansars were conspiring to appoint a caliph behind the back of the others who were engrossed in the burial preparations?? Of course there will be a strong opposition, and there was! If Abu Bakr and Umar forgot about Ghadeer Khum, well the Bani Hashem and many of there supporters did not.

The following narration is from al-Bukhari:

Narrated 'Aisha: Fatima the daughter of the Prophet sent someone to Abu Bakr (when he was a caliph), asking for her inheritance of what Allah's Apostle had left of the property bestowed on him by Allah from the Fai (i.e. booty gained without fighting) in Medina, and Fadak, and what remained of the Khumus of the Khaibar booty. On that, Abu Bakr said, "Allah's Apostle said, "Our property is not inherited. Whatever we leave, is Sadaqa, but the family of (the Prophet) Muhammad can eat of this property.' By Allah, I will not make any change in the state of the Sadaqa of Allah's Apostle and will leave it as it was during the lifetime of Allah's Apostle, and will dispose of it as Allah's Apostle used to do." So Abu Bakr refused to give anything of that to Fatima. So she became angry with Abu Bakr and kept away from him, and did not talk to him till she died. She remained alive for six months after the death of the Prophet. When she died, her husband 'Ali, buried her at night without informing Abu Bakr and he said the funeral prayer by himself. When Fatima was alive, the people used to respect 'Ali much, but after her death, 'Ali noticed a change in the people's attitude towards him. So Ali sought reconciliation with Abu Bakr and gave him an oath of allegiance. 'Ali had not given the oath of allegiance during those months (i.e. the period between the Prophet's death and Fatima's death). 'Ali sent someone to Abu Bakr saying, "Come to us, but let nobody come with you," as he disliked that 'Umar should come, 'Umar said (to Abu Bakr), "No, by Allah, you shall not enter upon them alone " Abu Bakr said, "What do you think they will do to me? By Allah, I will go to them' So Abu Bakr entered upon them, and then 'Ali uttered Tashah-hud and said (to Abu Bakr), "We know well your superiority and what Allah has given you, and we are not jealous of the good what Allah has bestowed upon you, but you did not consult us in the question of the rule and we thought that we have got a right in it because of our near relationship to Allah's Apostle ."

Thereupon Abu Bakr's eyes flowed with tears. And when Abu Bakr spoke, he said, "By Him in Whose Hand my soul is to keep good relations with the relatives of Allah's Apostle is dearer to me than to keep good relations with my own relatives. But as for the trouble which arose between me and you about his property, I will do my best to spend it according to what is good, and will not leave any rule or regulation which I saw Allah's Apostle following, in disposing of it, but I will follow." On that 'Ali said to Abu Bakr, "I promise to give you the oath of allegiance in this after noon." So when Abu Bakr had offered the Zuhr prayer, he ascended the pulpit and uttered the Tashah-hud and then mentioned the story of 'Ali and his failure to give the oath of allegiance, and excused him, accepting what excuses he had offered; Then 'Ali (got up) and praying (to Allah) for forgiveness, he uttered Tashah-hud, praised Abu Bakr's right, and said, that he had not done what he had done because of jealousy of Abu Bakr or as a protest of that Allah had favored him with. 'Ali added, "But we used to consider that we too had some right in this affair (of rulership) and that he (i.e. Abu Bakr) did not consult us in this matter, and therefore caused us to feel sorry." On that all the Muslims became happy and said, "You have done the right thing." The Muslims then became friendly with 'Ali as he returned to what the people had done (i.e. giving the oath of allegiance to Abu Bakr).

Sunni Reference:
     Sahih Bukhari, Volume 5, Book 59, Number 546, Book: al-Maghaazi; Page 884, Number 4240 & 4241 (Arabic version)


There is a lot of lies in this narration from Sahih al-Bukhari. The narrations have proven that Imam Ali was the legitimate caliph after the prophet. Why would Imam Ali apologize for his opposition and rejection? Why would he say: "and we thought that we have got a right in it because of our near relationship to Allah's Apostle". Imam Ali was certain to be the rightful owner of his matter. There is no 'I thought' or 'we thought' in a matter of certainty, a matter already established by the messenger of Allah. Another lie is 'We know well your superiority and what Allah has given you'! What superiority?? All the narrations have proven that no one is superior to Ahlul Bayt! They have certainly attributed lies to Imam Ali.

Masu'udi in his Muruj al-Dhahab wrote:
None of the Bani Hashim swore their allegiance to Abu Bakr until the death of Bibi Fatima

Ibn Abdul Hadid, in his Sharh Nahjul Balagha wrote:
Aisha narrated: "Ali did not offer allegiance to Abu Bakr for six months, and no one of the Bani Hashim offered allegiance until Ali did"

Here is another narration from ibn Abdul Hadid:
ثم ينبغي للعاقل أن يفكّر في تأخّر علي عَليهِ السلامُ عن بيعة أبي بكر ستة أشهر إلى أن ماتت فاطمة، فإن كان مصيباً فأبو بكر على الخطأ في انتصابه في الخلافة، وإن كان أبو بكر مصيباً فعليٌّ على الخطأ في تأخره عن البيعة وحضور المسجد

Ali's refusal to pay his allegiance was an indication that this election was not legitimate. Otherwise, why would Ali, a member of the purified progeny of the prophet, the gate of knowledge, the brother of the prophet would object to the election of Abu Bakr?

If Imam Ali paid allegiance to Abu Bakr, it must have been outwardly so he can quell the tension between the parties and avoid any desintegration or sedition. However, he certainly never accepted the caliphate of Abu Bakr, Umar or Uthman, not only because of authentic narrations which prove he is the legitimate caliph, but because of historical facts showing his opposition to all three of them. In fact, in the first caliph was illegitmate, then his successors are also illegitimate. Umar would not have been a caliph if Abu Bakr was not the first. Same about Uthman. However, Imam Ali was selected by the people.

The prophet never declared the caliphate of Abu Bakr
The prophet declared Ali to be his successor at Ghadeer Khum. He also referred to this caliphate at many different occasions through many hadiths. However, the prophet never gave a hint to the people or made a public announcement that Abu Bakr would be his successor. We all now know that Abu Bakr became caliph as a result to the mischief of al-Saqifa. It was neither a consultation since most of the Muhajereens were absent (were never informed of it) and the Muslims of the other Islamic cities were kept uninformed as well. Moreover, Abu Bakr's only justification (to the Ansars) to have more right over the matter of the caliphate is his kinship to the prophet, although this kinship is nowhere comparable to Ali's blood-relation to the prophet!

Here are some of the sayings from the scholars of Ahlul Sunnah:

قال عبد القاهر البغدادي في الفَرْق بين الفِرَق في معرض بيانه لعقائد أهل السنة : وقالوا : ليس من النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم نَصّ على إمامة واحد بعينه ، على خلاف قول من زعم من الرافضة أنه نَصَّ على إمامة علي بن أبي طالب رضي الله عنه نصّاً مقطوعاً على صحّته

وقال أبو حامد الغزالي : ولم يكن نصَّ رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم على إمام أصلاً ، إذ لو كان لكان أولى بالظهور من نصبه آحاد الولاة والأمراء على الجنود في البلاد ، ولم يخْفَ ذلك ، فكيف خفي هذا ؟ وإن ظهر فكيف اندرس حتى لم يُنقَل إلينا ؟ فلم يكن أبو بكر إماماً إلا بالاختيار والبيعة

وقال الإيجي في المواقف : المقصد الرابع : في الإمام الحق بعد رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم ، وهو عندنا أبو بكر ، وعند الشيعة علي رضي الله عنه. لنا وجهان : الأول : أن طريقه إما النص أو الإجماع. أما النص فلم يوجد لما سيأتي ، وأما الإجماع فلم يوجد على غير أبي بكر اتفاقاً

وقال النووي : إن المسلمين أجمعوا على أن الخليفة إذا حضرته مقدمات الموت وقبل ذلك يجوز له الاستخلاف ، ويجوز له تركه ، فإن تركه فقد اقتدى بالنبي صلى الله عليه وسلم في هذا ، وإلا فقد اقتدى بأبي بكر .

وقال في شرح الحديث الآتي : وفي هذا الحديث دليل على أن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم لم ينص على خليفة ، وهو إجماع أهل السنة وغيرهم

وقال ابن كثير : إن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم لم ينص على الخلافة عيناً لأحد من الناس ، لا لأبي بكر كما قد زعمه طائفة من أهل السنّة ، ولا لعلي كما يقوله طائفة من الرافضة

So the prophet never told anyone that Abu Bakr would be his successor. What most of the Sunnis claim is that Abu Bakr became caliph through consultation or a unanymous agreement. This is a fallacy! As for consultation, as the event of al-Saqifa has shown, the vast majority of the Muslims were absent, in particular the great Muhajireens. The only people who were present were some from al-Khazraj, some from al-Aws and the three Muhajireens: Abu Bakr, Umar and Abu Ubayda ibn al-Jarrah. Do you call this a consultation??? As for unanymous agreement, I believe history has clarified that the Banu Hashim and their supporters were opposed to Abu Bakr's caliphate. In fact, many were forced to accept it! So there was neither consultation (Shura) nor unanymous agreement (Ijma'a).

Was the appointment of Abu Bakr unanymous?
So the prophet never declared Abu Bakr as his caliph. In fact, he did not even favor it or hint to it or wished for it. Otherwise, why would the prophet declare Ali the master of all believers at Ghadeer Khum and have every witness pay allegiance to Ali? Why would the prophet, few days before his demise, ask many of the prominent companions, including Abu Bakr and Umar, to join the army of Usama and head towards Syria? In addition to that, there is no narration that shows that the prophet favored or wished Abu Bakr to be his successor. Besides, if there was such authentic narration, Abu Bakr would have used to support his case and Ahlul Bayt would not have rejected his caliphate.

There is no doubt that the events of al-Saqifa and the attack of the house of Fatima - to force the followers of Ali to accept the caliphate of Abu Bakr - are proof that Abu Bakr's caliphate was not unanumous. Not only were the Ansars politically forced to pledge allegiance to Abu Bakr, but Abu Bakr and Umar forced many of the Muhajereens to also pledge allegiance. The only reason imam Ali pledged Allegiance to Abu Bakr 6 months later is to avoid bloodshed.

ibn Atheer reported in his book Asadul Ghabat that some companions pledged Allegiance to Abu Bakr 6 months later:

وكانت بيعتهم بعد ستة أشهر على القول الصحيح

But who are these people who delayed their allegiance to Abu Bakr? As we have seen in section 4 of this paper, all of Banu Hashim did not give allegiance to Abu Bakr until Fatima's demise. This was also reported by ibn Atheer in his book Asadul Ghabat and al-Kamel in his Tarikh. al-Masu'udi reported in his book Muruj al-Dhahab:

None from Bani Hashem gave their baya'at to Abu Bakr until after the demise of Fatima.
ولم يبايعه أحد من بني هاشم حتى ماتت فاطمة رضي الله عنها

ibn Atheer reported that the leader of the Khazraj, Sa'ad ibn Ibadat did not give the baya'at to Abu Bakr either. This was obvious from the Saqifa narration reported in Sahih al-Bukhari. al-Masu'udi reported:

وخرج سعد بن عبادة ولم يبايع، فصار إلى الشام، فقُتل هناك في سنة خمس عشرة

Ibn Atheer in Asadul Ghabat, al-Kamel in his Tarikh, al-Halabi in his sirat al-Halabiya, al-Tabari in Riyad al-Nadhira, al-Ya'qqubi and Abul Fida' in their Tarikh have all reported that Zubayr ibn A'awam also did not give his Baya'at to Abu Bakr. He was one the companions present in the house of Ali and Fatima when Umar threatened to attack the house if those present in the house did not give their allegiance to Abu Bakr.

ibn Atheer, al-Tabari, al-Ya'aqubi and Abul Fida' have also reported that Khalid ibn Sae'ed ibn al-A'ss. Talha ibn U'abaydallah, al-Miqdad ibn al-Aswad, Salman al-Farisi, Abu Dharr al-Ghifari, A'ammar ibn Yassir, al-Bara' ibn A'azib, Ubay ibn Ka'ab, U'utba ibn Abi Lahab and Abu Sufyan did not pay allegiance to Abu Bakr either. There are probably more but this is enough to prove the point.

There were many narrations fabricated to support the caliphate of Abu Bakr because the followers of Ahlul Bayt at the time rejected all the caliphs and kings of their times. They considered them usurpers and illegitimate. Unfortunately, the scholars of Ahlul Sunnah have been using this fabrications to continue to defend this illegitimate caliphate. The examples are numorous and mind-buggling. So I will not waste the time mentioning them. However, all of them can be discarded easily by one simple but strong and irrefutable fact. It is well known that Ahlul Bayt refused to recognize Abu Bakr's caliphate. This, by itself is enough to illegitimize it. How? The fact that Allah ordered us to unconditionally adhere to Ahlul Bayt so as not to stray off and equated them to the Quran which is nothing but truth, means that the position of Ahlul Bayt with regards to this calamity is RIGHT, and it would have been the position of the prophet if he had witnessed this calamity. It also means that Abu Bakr dressed himself up with something that did not belong to him.

Why did not Ali fight back?
This is a legitimate question and deserves an answer. Let me ask you: Did the prophet seek revenge for the killers and torturers, respectively, of the family of Ammar ibn Yassir and Bilal al-Habashi? Did the prophet fight back when he knew that the Kuraysh had plotted to kill him? Did the prophet punish the hypocrite companion (Abdullah ibn Ubay) who accused Aisha of adultery? Did the prophet end up kiiling the killer of Zeinab's (his wife) unborn baby when she was migrating from Mecca to Medina? No, the prophet did not do any of these. Does it make him any less courageous? No, certainly not. These facts prove one thing: some patience prevails and is the best proof of courage.

What would have happened if Ali fought back? Use your imagination. Ali understood how hostile and determined Abu Bakr and Umar were to carry out their mission. He understood that nothing would stop them. Fighting back would have just exasperated the situation and led to a bloody Fitna.

Ali acted wisely by adopting patience. This was more courageous than using his sword. Imam Ali makes this point in his sermon of ash-Shiqshiqiyyah (#3 in Nahjul Balagha):

Beware! By Allah the son of Abu Quhafah (Abu Bakr) dressed himself with it (the caliphate) and he certainly knew that my position in relation to it was the same as the position of the axis in relation to the hand-mill. The flood water flows down from me and the bird cannot fly up to me. I put a curtain against the caliphate and kept myself detached from it. Then I began to think whether I should assault or endure calmly the blinding darkness of tribulations wherein the grown up are made feeble and the young grow old and the true believer acts under strain till he meets Allah (on his death). I found that endurance thereon was wiser. So I adopted patience although there was pricking in the eye and suffocation (of mortification) in the throat. I watched the plundering of my inheritance till the first one went his way but handed over the Caliphate to Ibn al-Khattab after himself.

The prophet told Ali:

"You will endure a lot after me". Ali asked: "For the safekeeping of religion?" The prophet responded: "Yes"
حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو أُسَامَةَ، قَالَ: حَدَّثَنِي مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ طَلْحَةَ، عَنْ أَبِي عُبَيْدَةَ بْنِ الحَكَمِ الأَزْدِيِّ يَرْفَعُ حَدِيثَهُ، أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ صَلَّى اللهٌ عَلَيهِ وَسَلَّمَ، قَالَ لِعَلِيٍّ: سَتَلْقَى بَعْدِي جَهْداً، قَالَ: يَا رَسُولَ اللهِ، فِي سَلاَمَةٍ فِي دِينِي، قَالَ: نَعَمْ، فِي سَلاَمَةٍ مِنْ دِينِك
References:
     ibn Abi Shayba in al-Mussanaf, vol 5, chapter 28
     Mustadrak al-Hakim, vol 3, chapter 31, #4677/275
     al-Muttaqi al-Hindi, Kanz al-Ummal, vol 11, #32966

ibn Asakir in Tarikh Dimashq, al-Muttaqi al-Hindi in Kanz al-Ummal and others reported the following proclamation of Ali during the day of al-Shura:

Abu Tufayl Ammer ibn Wathila narrated: "I was standing by the door the day of the Shura and the voices got louder among the six nominated companions. I heard Ali say: 'the people payed allegiance to Abu Bakr and by Allah I am more worthy and more entitled to this position than him. But I listened and obeyed lest the people become Kuffar and cut the throats of one another. Then the people payed allegiance to Umar and by Allah I am more worthy and more entitled to this position than him. But I listened and obeyed lest the people become Kuffar and cut the throats of one another. And now you want to pay allegiance to Uthman....' and started remind people of this virtues..."
عن زافر عن رجل عن الحارث بن محمد عن أبي الطفيل عامر بن واثلة قال: كنت على الباب يوم الشورى، فارتفعت الأصوات بينهم فسمعت عليا يقول: بايع الناس لأبي بكر وأنا والله أولى بالأمر منه، وأحق به منه، فسمعت وأطعت مخافة أن يرجع الناس كفارا يضرب بعضهم رقاب بعض بالسيف، ثم بايع الناس عمر وأنا والله أولى بالأمر منه وأحق به منه فسمعت وأطعت مخافة أن يرجع الناس كفارا يضرب بعضهم رقاب بعض بالسيف، ثم أنتم تريدون أن تبايعوا عثمان إذا أسمع وأطيع، ...